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List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 27.Understands how the Cold War and conflicts in Korea and Vietnam influenced domestic and international politics
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands influences on international relations after World War II (e.g., the "flawed peace" resulting from World War II, the effectiveness of the United Nations in reducing international tensions and conflict)
   2. Understands shifts in international relations after World War II (e.g., effects of popular uprisings against communist governments in Eastern Europe on U.S. foreign policy, U.S. relations with Israel and how Arab-Israeli crises influenced U.S. foreign policy, how the modern state of Israel became an independent country after World War II)
   3. Understands the characteristics and impact of the Vietnam War (e.g., the war's effect on Vietnamese and Americans; effects on postwar politics and culture; the location of the war in Southeast Asia; how the war escalated during the 1960s)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands major events in U.S. foreign policy during the early Cold War period (e.g., the origins of the Cold War and the advent of nuclear politics, U.S. response to the Chinese Revolution, causes of the Korean War and resulting international tensions, the implementation of the U.S. containment policy, the circumstances that led to the Marshall Plan and its accomplishments)
   2. Understands the differences between the foreign policies of Kennedy and Johnson (e.g., changes in U.S. foreign policy toward the Soviet Union and the reasons for these changes, changing foreign policy toward Latin America, the Kennedy administration’s Cuban policy)
   3. Understands political and social characteristics of the Vietnam War (e.g., the Vietnam policy of the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon administrations and shifts of public opinion about the war; the role of the Nixon administration in the Paris Peace Accord of 1973; early U.S. involvement in Vietnam following World War II and policies of the Truman and Eisenhower administrations)  A 
   4. Understands the Truman and Eisenhower doctrines of foreign policy in terms of the international tensions that prompted each
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands U.S. foreign policy from the Truman administration to the Johnson administration (e.g., American policies toward independence movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East; U.S. policy regarding the British mandate over Palestine and the establishment of the state of Israel; Kennedy’s response to the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile crises; how the Korean War affected the premises of U.S. foreign policy; the Kennedy-Johnson response to anti-colonial movements in Africa)
   2. Understands the political elements of the Vietnam War (e.g., the constitutional issues involved in the Vietnam War, the legacy of the war)
   3. Understands the social issues that resulted from U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War (e.g., the composition of American forces recruited in the war, why the Vietnam War contributed to a generational conflict and concomitant lack of respect for traditional authority figures)
   4. Understands factors that contributed to the development of the Cold War (e.g., the mutual suspicions and divisions fragmenting the Grand Alliance at the end of World War II, U.S. support for "self-determination" and the U.S.S.R’s desire for security in Eastern Europe, the practice of "atomic diplomacy")

 A  = Assessment items available