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List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 22.Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands efforts to restrict immigrants and diverse groups of people in the post-World War I era (e.g., the closing of the "Golden Door," nativism and anti-immigrant attitudes)
   2. Understands how urban life changed in the 1920s (e.g., how scientific management and technological innovations, including assembly lines, rapid transit, household appliances, and radio, transformed production, work and daily life; how improvements in steel construction and elevators contributed to the changes; why people prized home ownership; why people left the cities for the suburbs)
   3. Understands the rise of a mass culture in the 1920s (e.g., the media and recreation available in the 1920s; how increased leisure time promoted the growth of professional sports, amusement parks, and national parks; the impact of recreational areas on the local environment)
   4. Understands influences on African American culture during the 1920s (e.g., the Harlem Renaissance)
   5. Understands the effects of women’s suffrage on politics (e.g., the major events of women’s suffrage movement from the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 to the ratification of the 19th amendment; how the 19th Amendment changed political life in America)
   6. Understands how women's lives changed after World War I (e.g., their contributions in schools, hospitals, settlement houses, and social agencies; how the spread of electrification and household appliances improved the life of homemakers)
   7. Understands aspects of Prohibition (e.g., smuggling)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the various social conflicts that took place in the early 1920s (e.g., state and federal government reactions to the growth of radical political movements, rising racial tensions and the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, the Garvey Movement, the clash between traditional moral values and changing ideas as exemplified in the Scopes trial and Prohibition, how the restriction of European immigration affected Mexican American immigration)
   2. Understands elements that contributed to the rise of modern capitalist economy (e.g., changes in the modern corporation of the 1920s, including labor policies and the advent of mass advertising and sales techniques; the role of new technology and scientific research in the rise of agribusiness and agricultural productivity; the impact of advertisement on the desire for new products)
   3. Understands changes in the social and cultural life of American society in the 1920s (e.g., art and literature from the social realists to the "Lost Generation," how cultural trends were introduced into mainstream society, reasons for increased leisure time in the 1920s)
   4. Understands events that shaped the political structure of America in the 1920s (e.g., changes in Progressivism during the Harding and Coolidge administrations; foreign policy of the Republican administrations of Harding, Coolidge and Hoover; U.S. territories and spheres of influence in the 1920s; the extent of support for an Equal Rights Amendment)
   5. Understands changing attitudes toward women in the post-World War I era (e.g., changing values and new ideas regarding employment opportunities, appearance standards, leisure activities, and political participation)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the major social issues of 1920s America (e.g., the emergence of the "New Woman" and challenges to Victorian values, the purpose and goals of the "New Klan," the causes and outcome of Prohibition, the ethnic composition of immigrants and fears these changes represented, the "Red Scare," the Sacco and Vanzetti trial)
   2. Understands factors that contributed to changes in work, production, and the rise of a consumer culture (e.g., the "new paternalism" of the modern corporation, how national advertising and sales campaigns affected the American economy)
   3. Understands influences on urban life in America during the 1920s (e.g., new downtown business areas, suburbs, transportation, architecture, the idea of the "civic center")
   4. Understands the impact of new cultural movements on American society in the 1920s (e.g., the extension of secondary education to new segments of American society, the emergence of artists in the postwar period, the origins and development of jazz, how the creation of national parks affected Native American culture)
   5. Understands how political issues in the 1920s influenced American society (e.g., the goals and effectiveness of the Republican party in the 1920s, the Harding and Coolidge administrations and the effects of World War I on Progressivism)