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List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 20.Understands how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands Progressive ideas and reform efforts (e.g., the Progressive idea of a democracy responsive to the needs of an industrial society, Progressive attempts at social and moral reform, conditions that inspired these reforms)
   2. Understands political and legislative elements of the Progressive movement (e.g., how the Progressives promoted political change and expanded democracy at state and local levels; the leadership of Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson and their ideas for reform; the 16th, 17th, and 18th amendments; the movement for women’s suffrage)
   3. Understands issues and perspectives of different groups during the Progressive era (e.g., African Americans and their alternative programs; women, Native Americans, organized workers)
   4. Understands how migrants from rural areas and immigrants from other lands experienced life in growing urban centers and how they coped (e.g., schools, settlement houses, religious groups, philanthropists)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the spread of Progressive ideas and the successes of the Progressive movement (e.g., how intellectuals, religious leaders, and writers alerted the public to the problems of urban industrial society; Progressive social reforms in education, conservation, and the "Americanization" of immigrants; contributions of governors such as Hiram Johnson, Robert La Follette, and Charles Evans Hughes)
   2. Understands the influence of events and individuals on the Progressive Movement (e.g., results of the election of 1912; movements that led to the 16th, 17th, and 18th amendments; how Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson were popularly portrayed as leaders of reform)
   3. Understands the New Nationalism, New Freedom, and Socialist agendas for change
   4. Understands the issues of those groups who supported and rejected the goals of Progressivism (e.g., how African Americans used Progressive tactics to attempt change, how the goals of the Industrial Workers of the World differed from Progressive programs)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the origins and impact of the Progressive movement (e.g., social origins of Progressives and how these contributed to the success and failure of the movement; Progressive reforms pertaining to big business, and worker’s and consumer’s rights; arguments of Progressive leaders)
   2. Understands major social and political issues of the Progressive era (e.g., Supreme Court decisions that affected Progressivism; the Hetch Hetchy controversy)
   3. Understands how the Progressive movement influenced different groups in American society (e.g., counter-Progressive programs of labor organizations compared to social democratic programs in industrial Europe, the response of mainstream Progressives to women’s issues, the changing perception of Native American assimilation under Progressivism, the founding of the NAACP, how African American women contributed to the movement, how the International Ladies Garment Workers Union provided alternatives, the success of the Progressive movement to groups outside the mainstream)
   4. Understands how racial and ethnic events influenced American society during the Progressive era (e.g., the movement to restrict immigration; how racial and ethnic conflicts contributed to delayed statehood for New Mexico and Arizona; the impact of new nativism; influences on African, Native, Asian, and Hispanic Americans)
   5. Understands efforts to achieve women’s suffrage in the early twentieth century (e.g., methods used by Carrie Chapman Catt in her leadership of the National Women’s Suffrage Association to get the 19th amendment passed and ratified, why President Wilson changed his mind about the amendment, which of Catt’s tactics were most successful)