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List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 19.Understands federal Indian policy and United States foreign policy after the Civil War
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands significant events for Native American tribes in the late 19th century and how they responded (e.g., survival strategies of Native American societies during the "second great removal," movement to reservations in western states, the effect of government policies on Native American nations and Native American land holdings between 1870 and 1900)
   2. Understands the expansion of U.S. territories in the post-Civil War era (e.g., areas the U.S. annexed, primary interests in these areas)
   3. Understands critical features of the Spanish-American War (e.g., conditions that led to the war with Spain in 1898, character and outcome of the war, leading personalities of the Spanish-American War)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands interaction between Native Americans and white society (e.g., the attitudes and policies of government officials, the U.S. Army, missionaries, and settlers toward Native Americans; the provisions and effects of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 on tribal identity, land ownership and assimilation; the legacy of the 19th century federal Indian policy; Native American responses to increased white settlement, mining activities, and railroad construction)
   2. Understands the causes and consequences of the Spanish-American War (e.g., economic and geographic factors, U.S. justifications, impact of the press on the public opinion, the role of the U.S. in Cuba after the war, the war’s effects on U.S. involvement in international relations, constitutional issues raised by the acquisition of new territories)
   3. Understands factors that influenced U.S. expansionism in the late 19th century (e.g., consequences of the Philippine annexation and Filipino insurrection; geographic, economic, and social factors; arguments used to justify expansion; arguments of opponents to expansion)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands factors in the outbreak and outcome of the Spanish-American War (e.g., President McKinley's reasons for going to war; changing U.S. attitudes toward Emilio Aguinaldo from 1898 to the issue of warrants for his arrest after the Treaty of Paris)
   2. Understands elements that contributed to late 19th century expansionist foreign policy (e.g., geopolitics, economic interests, racial ideology, Protestant missionary zeal, nationalism, and domestic tensions)
   3. Understands influences on and perspectives of Native American life in the late 19th century (e.g., how the admission of new western states affected relations between the United States and Native American societies; leadership and values of Native American leaders; depiction of Native Americans and whites by 19th century artists)