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List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 17.Understands massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands patterns of immigrant life after 1870 (e.g., where people came from and where they settled; how immigrants formed a new American culture; the challenges, opportunities, and contributions of different immigrant groups; ways in which immigrants learned to live and work in a new country)
   2. Understands the experiences of diverse groups and minorities in different regions of the country (e.g., the experiences of African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans; the anti-Chinese movement in the West; the rise of lynching in the South; the impact of Jim Crow laws on African Americans)
   3. Understands social activities in the late 19th century (e.g., new forms of popular culture and leisure activities at different levels of American society, entertainment for children)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the background and experiences of immigrants of the late 19th century (e.g., how the immigrants differed from those of the early 19th century in numbers, motives, origins, ethnicity, religion and language; how Catholic and Jewish immigrants responded to discrimination; attitudes toward immigrants)  A 
   2. Understands the scientific theories of race and their application to society and politics
   3. Understands changes in American life in the late 19th century (e.g., how regional artists and writers portrayed American life, attitudes, and values; reasons for the appeal of new sports, entertainment, and recreational activities; changes in lifestyles)
   4. Understands opposition to discrimination in the late 19th century (e.g., how Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans responded to discriminatory practices, leadership roles of those who spoke out against discrimination)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands challenges immigrants faced in society in the late 19th century (e.g., experiences of new immigrants from 1870 to 1900, reasons for hositility toward the new immigrants, restrictive measures against immigrants, the tension between American ideals and reality)
   2. Understands the influence of public education on American society after 1870 (e.g., the role of public and parochial schools in integrating immigrants into mainstream America, how the rise of public education and voluntary organizations promoted national unity and American values)
   3. Understands how scientific theories of race affected society in the late 19th century (e.g., arguments of advocates and opponents, the impact of these theories on public policy)
   4. Understands the challenges diverse people encountered in late 19th century American society (e.g.,the role of new laws and the federal judiciary in instituting racial inequality; arguments and methods by which various minority groups sought to acquire equal rights and opportunities; experiences of African American families who migrated from the South to New York City in the 1890s)
   5. Understands changes in social and class development in late 19th century America (e.g.,Victorianism and its impact on architecture, literature, manners and morals)

 A  = Assessment items available