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List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 12.Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands how literary and artistic movements fostered a distinct American identity among different groups and in different regions
   2. Understands the major characteristics of the abolition movement in the antebellum period (e.g., different viewpoints within the abolitionist movement, arguments of those opposed to and those who supported slavery, the Underground Railroad)
   3. Understands the religious revivals that swept the nation in the early 19th century (e.g., the importance of the Second Great Awakening, the messages of Great Awakening leaders such as Charles Finney and Peter Cartwright)
   4. Understands the role of women in the reform movements in antebellum America (e.g., the contributions of individuals of different racial and social groups, the types of reforms women sought, how fashion became a part of the movement for women’s rights)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands perspectives that influenced slavery in the antebellum period (e.g., changing ideas about race, the reception of proslavery and antislavery ideologies in the North and South, arguments used to defend slavery in the 18th and 19th centuries)
   2. Understands the significant religious, philosophical, and social movements of the 19th century and their impacts on American society and social reform (e.g., the impact of the Second Great Awakening on issues such as public education, temperance, women's suffrage, and abolitionism; Transcendentalism and the literary works of its central leaders; Transcendentalist ideas about the individual, society, and nature)
   3. Understands how women influenced reform movements and American society during the antebellum period (e.g., the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" of 1848, the leadership role women played in major reform movements, how the public at large viewed these women)  A 
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands elements of slavery in both the North and South during the antebellum period (e.g., similarities and differences between African American and white abolitionists, defense of chattel slavery by slaveholders, growing hostility toward free blacks in the North, how African American leaders fought for rights)
   2. Understands the social impact of the Second Great Awakening (e.g., how Great Awakening leaders affected ordinary people; how the belief in individual responsibility for salvation and millenialism influenced reform movements; the role of moral suasion, social control, and compromise in reform)
   3. Understands the ideas of Transcendentalism (e.g., views of Transcendentalists about good and evil, authority, tradition, and reform; similarities and differences between Transcendentalists and evangelical Protestants)
   4. Understands the development of Utopian communities (e.g., origins, beliefs, size, how their ideas compared to Transcendentalists)
   5. Understands changing gender roles in the antebellum period (e.g., men and women's occupations, legal rights, and social status in the North, South and West; how gender roles were influenced by class, ethnic, racial, and religious lines)
   6. Understands the ideas associated with women's rights during the antebellum period (e.g., the goals and ideas of the antebellum women's movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism, how the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" relates to the ideas of the Declaration of Independence, the connection between the evangelical movement and the idea of southern woman, and the extent to which southern women endorsed the "Declaration of Sentiments")

 A  = Assessment items available