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List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 10.Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands the lives of immigrants in American society during the antebellum period (e.g., factors that led to increased immigration from China, Ireland, and Germany; how immigrants adapted to life in the United States and to hostility from the nativist movement and the "Know- Nothing" party)
   2. Understands the major technological developments that influenced land and water transportation, the economy, international markets, and the environment between 1801 and 1860 (e.g., the importance of the spinning jenny, steam locomotive, and telegraph; the development of the canal system after 1825 and railroad system after 1860)
   3. Understands social and economic elements of urban and rural life in the early and mid-19th centuries (e.g., the impact of the factory system on gender roles and the daily life of men, women, and children; factors that caused rapid urbanization; city life in the 1840s; differences in urban and rural childrens’ lives, life in New England mill towns in the early 1800s, the impact of the canal and railroad on the locations and size of cities after 1820)  A 
   4. Understands popular and high culture in growing urban areas during the 19th century (e.g., novels, theater, minstrel shows, P.T. Barnum's "American Museum")
   5. Understands how slavery shaped social and economic life in the South after 1800 (e.g., how the cotton gin and the opening of new lands in the South and West led to increased demands for slaves; differences in the lives of plantation owners, poor free black and white families, and slaves; methods of passive and active resistance to slavery; escaped slaves and the Underground Railroad)  A 
   6. Understands elements of early western migration (e.g., the lure of the West and the reality of life on the frontier; motivations of various settlers; Mormon contributions to the settlement of the West; differences in the settlement of California and Oregon in the late 1840s and 1850s; routes taken by settlers of the Western U.S.; interactions between settlers and Native Americans and Mexicans in the western territories)  A 
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands how immigration affected American society in the antebellum period (e.g., the connection between industrialization and immigration, how immigration intensified ethnic and cultural conflict and complicated the forging of a national identity)
   2. Understands the role of government in various areas of public service in the early 1800s (e.g., national and state policies regarding protective tariffs and a national bank, the controversy over federally funded internal improvements)
   3. Understands the social and economic impacts of the factory system (e.g., its role in developing a labor movement in the antebellum period, perspectives of owners and workers, child labor in New England mills)
   4. Understands influences on urban life in the early and late 19th century (e.g., how rapid urbanization, immigration, and industrialization affected the social fabric of cities; individuals who contributed to the development of free black communities in the cities; the rise of racial hostility)
   5. Understands different economic, cultural, and social characteristics of slavery after 1800 (e.g., the influence of the Haitian Revolution and the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, how slaves forged their own culture in the face of oppression, the role of the plantation system in shaping slaveholders and the enslaved, the experiences of escaped slaves)
   6. Understands characteristics of life on the western frontier in the 19th century (e.g., cultural interactions between diverse groups in the trans-Mississippi region, how the Mormons established the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and their communities)
   7. Understands how major technological and economic developments influenced various groups (e.g., business owners, farmers, workers in different regions)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands policies affecting regional and national interests during the early 19th century (e.g., how expansion-based economic policies, including northern dominance of locomotive transportation, contributed to growing political and sectional differences; the cheap price for the sale of western lands to residents of the North, South, and West; Andrew Jackson's veto of the Bank Recharter Bill of 1832)
   2. Understands characteristics of economic development during the 19th century (e.g., patterns of economic development in different regions of the country during the first half of the 19th century; how early 19th century court cases promoted the market revolution; the causes and results of economic depressions of 1819, 1837, and 1857)
   3. Understands how slavery influenced economic and social elements of Southern society (e.g., how slavery hindered the emergence of capitalist institutions and values, the influence of slavery on the development of the middle class, the influence of slave revolts on the lives of slaves and freed slaves)
   4. Understands significant religious, cultural, and social changes in the American West (e.g., the degree to which political democracy influenced social and political conditions on the frontier, cultural characteristics of diverse groups, the impact of the Second Great Awakening and religious revivals on Mormon migration to the West, the lives of women in the West)
   5. Understands the impact of the Industrial Revolution during the early and later 19th century (e.g., the growth and spread of the factory system in New England, the effects of ethnic, religious, and racial tensions on the emergence of a unified labor movement)
   6. Understands the social and cultural influence of former slaves in cities of the North (e.g., their leadership of African American communities, how they advanced the rights and interests of African Americans)

 A  = Assessment items available