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Grades K-4 History

Standard 8.Understands major discoveries in science and technology, some of their social and economic effects, and the major scientists and inventors responsible for them
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate at this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Understands differences between hunters and gatherers and people who cultivated plants and raised domesticated animals for food (e.g., in family life, the amounts of land necessary for support, ability to acquire surplus food for storage and trading)
   2. Knows the accomplishments of major scientists and inventors (e.g., George Washington Carver, Galileo, Marie Curie, Louis Pasteur, Alexander Graham Bell)
   3. Knows basic information about marine transportation (e.g., the technology and activities of people along the Erie Canal)
   4. Knows the ways people communicate with each other now and long ago, and the technological developments that facilitated communication (e.g., speaking by gestures, transmitting stories orally, pictographs, hieroglyphics, different alphabets, writing by hand, printing techniques, the invention of the telegraph and telephone, satellite transmission of messages)
   5. Knows various systems of long-distance communication and their effects (e.g., runners, the "talking drums" of Africa, smoke signals of Native Americans, the pony express, the telegraph, telephones, satellite systems)
   6. Understands differences in the methods of travel from various times in human history and the advantages and disadvantages of each (e.g., the use of animals such as horses and camels; nonmotorized vehicles such as chariots and hot air balloons; motorized vehicles such as railroads, automobiles, and airplanes; modern space advancements)
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   1. Knows about the development of the wheel and its early uses in ancient societies
   2. Understands the development and the influence of basic tools on work and behavior
   3. Knows various technological developments to control fire, water, wind, and soil, and to utilize natural resources (e.g., trees, coal, oil, gas) in order to satisfy basic human needs for food, water, clothing, and shelter
   4. Knows about technological inventions and developments that evolved during the 19th century and the influence of these changes on the lives of workers
   5. Knows the different forms of transportation and their developments over time
   6. Understands the development in marine vessels constructed by people from ancient times until today (e.g., early dugout Phoenician ships, Native American canoes, the Portuguese caravel, the Chinese vessels used by Zheng He, the Arab dhow, the Norse long ships, currachs used in the British Isles, square riggers, aircraft carriers, submarines, bathyscaphs)
   7. Understands the development of extensive road systems (e.g., the Roman system of roads; the trade routes by camel caravan linking East Asia, Southwest Asia, and Africa during the ancient and early Middle Ages; the network of roads and highways of the Inca in Peru; the interstate highway system), the travel and communication difficulties encountered by people over vast expanses of territory, and the social and economic effects of these developments
   8. Knows the developments in rail transportation beginning in the 19th century and the effects of national systems of railroad transport on the lives of people
   9. Understands the design and development of aircraft and rocketry, and the people involved
   10. Knows about people who have made significant contributions in the field of transportation (e.g., Henry Ford, Amelia Earhart, John Glenn, Sally Ride)
   11. Understands the origins and changes in methods of writing over time and how the changes made communications between people more effective (e.g., pictographs, cuneiform, hieroglyphics, alphabets)
   12. Understands the significance of the printing press, the computer, and electronic developments in communication and their impact on the spread of ideas
   13. Knows about people who have made significant contributions in the field of communications (e.g., the inventors of the telegraph, telephone, the Braille alphabet, radio, television, the computer, satellite communication)
   14. Knows the significant scientific and technological achievements of various historical societies (e.g., the invention of paper in China, Mayan calendars, mummification in Egypt, astronomical discoveries in the Moslem world, the invention of the steam engine in England)