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Early Childhood

Standard 5.Children develop the ability to communicate
  0-9 months
   1. Responds to familiar words with gestures or facial expressions (e.g., responds to his/her name, smiles or waves arms upon hearing the word "bottle" or "daddy," lifts arms when an adult says “up”)
   2. Responds to tone of voice with sounds, gestures, or facial expressions (e.g., shows preference for familiar human voices over other sounds, makes a worried face in response to a stern voice, pays attention to the language used in his/her home, imitates vocalizations and sounds)
   3. Participates in back-and forth communication and games (e.g., babble back and forth with an adult, vocalizes to initiate social contact, waves bye-bye)
   4. Communicates needs, wants, or interests (e.g., uses different types of cries for expressing hunger, discomfort, fear, and other emotions; squeals when excited; makes specific sounds for certain people and objects)
   5. Shows interest in pictures and books (e.g., looks at pictures that an adult points to; explores books by holding, mouthing, banging, and patting)
  8-18 months
   1. Responds to the language of others (e.g., enjoys the sounds and rhythms of language, pays attention to what the speaker is looking at or pointing to, cries in response to sudden loud noises or angry voices)
   2. Shows understanding of simple questions and one-step requests in a familiar context (e.g., looks at an object when asked where it is; responds appropriately to directions such as waving bye-bye, retrieving an object, or sitting down)
   3. Uses gestures and words to communicate in short back-and-forth interactions (e.g., initiates interactions; takes turns speaking; imitates words, signs, and gestures)
   4. Uses consistent sounds, gestures, signs, and some words to communicate needs, wants, and interests (e.g., uses made-up “words,” uses expressions such as "uh-oh," names a few familiar favorite objects, shakes head "no")
   5. Listens and participates while being read to by selecting a favorite book, pointing, turning pages, and labeling pictures or drawings.
   6. Shows an interest in simple songs, rhymes, sounds, and finger plays (e.g., makes the sounds of animals or things, such as trains; makes motions for familiar games, such as “pat-a-cake”)
   7. Notices print in the environment (e.g., looks at posters and other pictures on the walls, recognizes a sign or logo that they see often)
   8. Makes marks or scribbles on paper with a large crayon or marker
  16-36 months
   1. Shows interest in songs, rhymes, and stories (e.g., fills in missing words in a rhyming pattern, laughs when told a silly rhyme or story, listens to books with educators for longer periods of time)
   2. Understands comments, statements, and two-step requests that refer to complex concepts such as time and feelings (e.g., “How do you feel about visiting the doctor tomorrow?”) and positions in space (e.g., “Please put your cup on the table.”)
   3. Engages in back-and-forth conversations (e.g., initiates conversations, builds upon what was said in the previous turn, asks questions, recognizes that a pause means it is his/her turn to talk)
   4. Communicates in a way that is understandable to most adults (e.g., expands working vocabulary; combines words into simple phrases and sentences; sometimes applies grammatical rules of the home language, such as using plural nouns and pronouns)
   5. Engages in literacy activities (e.g., listens, asks questions, and makes comments while being read to; handles and looks at books on their own; pretends to read; wants to read a favorite book over and over)
   6. Recognizes uses for print (e.g., makes scribbles or shapes on paper to convey meaning, distinguishes between written words and pictures)