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Early Childhood

Standard 2.Children develop trust and emotional security through positive relationships, self-awareness, and self-regulation
  0-9 months
   1. Shows awareness and interest in other children (e.g., watches other children, touches the eyes or hair of a peer, laughs or babbles to another infant)
   2. Builds relationships with familiar adults (e.g., makes eye contact, responds to facial expressions, seeks interactions with and comfort from caregiver, distinguishes between familiar and unfamiliar people, shows preference for familiar adults)
   3. Reacts to other’s emotional expressions (e.g., becomes upset when another infant is crying; imitates facial expressions of others)
   4. Demonstrates awareness of self (e.g., responds to own name, studies own hands and fingers, stares at self in a mirror) and own ability to affect immediate environment (e.g., raises arms to be picked up, repeats actions that cause a toy to make noise)
   5. Comforts self with support (e.g., sucks fist, thumb, or pacifier; falls asleep when rocked) and communicates discomfort or distress (e.g., turns away from an over-stimulating activity, looks for a familiar adult when scared)
   6. Expresses emotion through facial expressions, movements, gestures, or sounds (e.g., smiles, cries, frowns, laughs) in response to environment.
  8-18 months
   1. Shows interest in and engages with other children (e.g., engages in simple back-and-forth interactions with peers, plays with one or two preferred playmates, imitates other children’s actions)
   2. Develops secure relationships with familiar adults (e.g., cries when parent leaves, seeks comfort from familiar adult in new situations, follows a parent or teacher physically around the room)
   3. Demonstrates awareness of the feelings of others (e.g., watches another child who is crying or laughing, offers a toy to another child who is upset, squeals with joy when other children are happy and excited)
   4. Engages in more complex social interactions (e.g., uses gestures and vocalizations to get specific responses from others, uses another’s emotional expressions to guide own responses, imitates behavior, moves to be beside another child)
   5. Demonstrates awareness of own characteristics, thoughts, and feelings (e.g., points to parts of his/her body when asked; expresses likes and dislikes for food, objects, and people)
   6. Shows confidence in increasing abilities (e.g., expresses satisfaction with what he or she has done by clapping, explores independently, experiments with different ways of making things happen)
   7. Responds positively to choices and limits set by adults to help control behavior (e.g., understands simple rules and routines, looks at adult to determine whether a behavior is permitted, makes choices when given options, accepts re-direction)
   8. Comforts self when upset (e.g., sucks on fingers or thumb; uses comfort objects, such as a blanket or stuffed animal; seeks out a familiar person, toy, or place) and actively avoids or ignores situations that cause discomfort
   9. Expresses a range of emotions through actions, body language, and expressions (e.g., gives hugs to show affection; cries when afraid, laughs or claps when happy; pushes away a toy when frustrated)
  16-36 months
   1. Understands the responses, communication, and emotional expressions of other people (e.g., talks about other’s emotions, tries to comfort or entertain another person, adjusts behavior for different situations, becomes distressed if another toddler cries)
   2. Responds to and engages with other children (e.g., observes and imitates play of others; smiles, laughs, or talks to other children; may have trouble sharing; seeks specific children for regular interactions and notices when they are gone)
   3. Responds to and engages with adults (e.g., initiates interactions with adults, helps an adult with a task) and develops a close relationship with certain adults (e.g., desires a particular adult’s attention, seeks comfort or affection from specific adults)
   4. Identifies own needs and interests (e.g., says own name and identifies self in a mirror; refuses to stop an enjoyable activity; rejects something disliked; uses pronouns, such as "mine!")
   5. Shows confidence in his or her abilities to influence the environment (e.g. insists on doing things by his/herself or doing them in a particular way, shows pride in achievements, seeks to repeat successful experiences)
   6. Recognizes physical, cultural, and ethnic differences between self and others (e.g., identifies themselves and others as members of one or more groups by referring to categories for age, gender, and physical characteristics)
   7. Develops increasing ability to control own emotions (e.g., comforts self by seeking out a special object or person, communicates specific needs and wants, moves away from frustrating experiences)
   8. Develops increasing ability to control own actions (e.g., responds to guidance and redirection; responds to changes in adult’s tone of voice and expression; follows simple directions and rules, such as not touching a forbidden object or crossing the street alone)
   9. Expresses self-conscious emotions (e.g., pride, embarrassment, shame, guilt) and emotions based on new understandings (e.g., fear of monsters) through actions (e.g., hides, acts out emotions in pretend play) and speech (e.g., labels own and other’s emotions)