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Common Core English Language Arts

StrandLanguage
  Grade 3
   L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
   L.3.1.a. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
   L.3.1.b. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
   L.3.1.c. Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
   L.3.1.d. Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
   L.3.1.e. Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
   L.3.1.f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
   L.3.1.g. Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
   L.3.1.h. Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
   L.3.1.i. Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
   L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
   L.3.2.a. Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
   L.3.2.b. Use commas in addresses.
   L.3.2.c. Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
   L.3.2.d. Form and use possessives.
   L.3.2.e. Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
   L.3.2.f. Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
   L.3.2.g. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
   L.3.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
   L.3.3.a. Choose words and phrases for effect.
   L.3.3.b. Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English.
   L.3.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.3.4.a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.3.4.b. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat).
   L.3.4.c. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion).
   L.3.4.d. Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
   L.3.5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
   L.3.5.a. Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).
   L.3.5.b. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful).
   L.3.5.c. Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard, wondered).
   L.3.6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domainspecific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).
  Grade 4
   L.4.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
   L.4.1.a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
   L.4.1.b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
   L.4.1.c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
   L.4.1.d. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
   L.4.1.e. Form and use prepositional phrases.
   L.4.1.f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
   L.4.1.g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
   L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
   L.4.2.a. Use correct capitalization.
   L.4.2.b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
   L.4.2.c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
   L.4.2.d. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
   L.4.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
   L.4.3.a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
   L.4.3.b. Choose punctuation for effect.
   L.4.3.c. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).
   L.4.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.4.4.a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.4.4.b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
   L.4.4.c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
   L.4.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
   L.4.5.a. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
   L.4.5.b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
   L.4.5.c. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
   L.4.6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
  Grade 5
   L.5.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
   L.5.1.a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
   L.5.1.b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
   L.5.1.c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
   L.5.1.d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
   L.5.1.e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
   L.5.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
   L.5.2.a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
   L.5.2.b. Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
   L.5.2.c. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
   L.5.2.d. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
   L.5.2.e. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
   L.5.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
   L.5.3.a. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
   L.5.3.b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems.
   L.5.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
   L.5.4.a. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
   L.5.4.b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
   L.5.4.c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
   L.5.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
   L.5.5.a. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
   L.5.5.b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
   L.5.5.c. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.
   L.5.6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).