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List of Benchmarks for Historical Understanding

Standard 1.Understands and knows how to analyze chronological relationships and patterns
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows how to identify the beginning, middle, and end of historical stories, myths, and narratives
   2. Knows how to develop picture time lines of their own lives or their family's history
   3. Distinguishes among broad categories of historical time (e.g., long, long ago; long ago; yesterday; today; tomorrow)
   4. Understands calendar time in days, weeks, and months
   5. Knows how to identify change and continuity in his or her own life
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Understands calendar time in years, decades, and centuries
   2. Knows how to construct time lines in significant historical developments that mark at evenly spaced intervals the years, decades, and centuries  A 
   3. Knows how to interpret data presented in time lines (e.g., identify the time at which events occurred; the sequence in which events developed; what else was occurring at the time)  A 
   4. Knows how to identify patterns of change and continuity in the history of the community, state, and nation, and in the lives of people of various cultures from times long ago until today
   5. Distinguishes between past, present, and future time
   6. Understands the broadly defined eras of state and local historical events
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows how to diagram the temporal structure of events in autobiographies, biographies, literary narratives, and historical narratives, and understands the differences between them
   2. Knows how to construct and interpret multiple tier time lines (e.g., a time line that contains important social, economic, and political developments in colonial history; a time line that compares developments in the English, French, and Spanish colonies in North America)
   3. Knows how to calculate calendar time B.C. (before Christ) or B.C.E. (before the Common Era), and A.D. (Anno Domini) or C.E. (in the Common Era), determining the onset, duration, and ending dates of historical events or developments
   4. Understands patterns of change and continuity in the historical succession of related events
   5. Knows how to impose temporal structure on their historical narratives (e.g., working backward from some issue, problem, or event to explain its causes that arose from some beginning and developed through subsequent transformations over time)
   6. Knows how to periodize events of the nation into broadly defined eras
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows how to identify the temporal structure and connections disclosed in historical narratives
   2. Understands historical continuity and change related to a particular development or theme (e.g., the Industrial Revolution, the evolution of democracy in the U.S.)
   3. Understands the organizing principles of alternative models of historical periodization
   4. Understands alternative systems of recording time (e.g., Egyptian, Indian, Mayan, Muslim, Jewish), astronomical systems on which they are based (e.g., solar, lunar, semilunar), their fixed points for measuring time, and their strengths and weaknesses

 A  = Assessment items available