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List of Benchmarks for Thinking and Reasoning

Standard 6.Applies decision-making techniques
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Makes and defends decisions about daily activities (e.g., what books to read)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Studies past and present decisions that were made in the community in terms of the alternatives that were considered
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Identifies situations in the community and in one’s personal life in which a decision is required
   2. Secures factual information needed to evaluate alternatives and uses it to predict the consequences of selecting each alternative
   3. Identifies the values underlying the alternatives that are considered and the criteria that will be used to make a selection among the alternatives
   4. Makes decisions based on the data obtained and the criteria identified (e.g., selects appropriate locations for service industries in the community)
   5. Takes action to implement a decision, monitors progress, and adjusts when needed
   6. Makes effective decisions about consumer products based on important criteria, including external features, performance, durability, cost, and personal tradeoffs
   7. Analyzes personal decisions in terms of the options that were considered
   8. Uses a decision-making grid or matrix to make or study decisions involving a relatively limited number of alternatives and criteria
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Analyzes decisions that were major turning points in history and describes how things would have been different if other alternatives had been selected
   2. Analyzes current or pending decisions that can affect national or international policy and identifies the consequences of each alternative
   3. Uses a decision-making grid or matrix to make or study decisions involving a relatively large number of alternatives and criteria
   4. Uses a balance sheet to evaluate the costs and benefits of various alternatives within a decision
   5. Evaluates major factors (e.g., personal priorities, environmental conditions, peer groups) that influence personal decisions
   6. Analyzes the impact of decisions on self and others and takes responsibility for consequences and outcomes of decisions