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Thinking and Reasoning

Standard 3.Effectively uses mental processes that are based on identifying similarities and differences
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Identifies the similarities and differences between persons, places, things, and events using concrete criteria
   2. Classifies things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, motion, sound, and behavior
   3. Finds simple patterns in the surrounding events and objects
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Understands that one way to make sense of something is to think how it is like something more familiar
   2. Knows when comparisons might not be fair because some characteristics are not the same
   3. Uses concrete (e.g., population, exports, ethnicity) and abstract characteristics (e.g., art) to compare people and places
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Compares consumer products on the basis of features, performance, durability, and cost, and considers personal tradeoffs
   2. Understands that an analogy not only contains some likenesses but also some differences
   3. Selects criteria or rules for category membership that are relevant and important
   4. Orders information and events chronologically, based on frequency of occurrence, or based on importance to a given criterion
   5. Articulates abstract relationships between existing categories of information
   6. Creates a table to compare specific abstract and concrete features of two items
   7. Compares different sources of information for the same topic in terms of basic similarities and differences
   8. Knows how relationships among ideas form the basis for valid analogies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Uses a comparison table to compare multiple items on multiple abstract characteristics
   2. Identifies abstract patterns of similarities and differences between information on the same topic but from different sources
   3. Identifies abstract relationships between seemingly unrelated items
   4. Identifies the qualitative and quantitative traits (other than frequency and obvious importance) that can be used to order and classify items