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List of Benchmarks for Behavioral Studies

Standard 4.Understands conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among individuals, groups, and institutions
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that disagreements are common, even between family members or friends
   2. Understands that some ways of dealing with disagreements work better than others, and that people who are not involved in an argument may be helpful in solving it
   3. Understands that rules at home, at school, and in the community let individuals know what to expect and so can reduce the number of disputes
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that communicating different points of view in a dispute can often help people to find a satisfactory compromise
   2. Understands that resolving a conflict by force rather than compromise can lead to more problems
   3. Understands that one person's exercise of freedom may conflict with the freedom of others and that rules can help to resolve conflicting freedoms
   4. Understands that if a conflict cannot be settled by compromise, it may be decided by a vote if everyone agrees to accept the results
   5. Understands that beliefs and customs held by certain groups can help or hinder people as they strive to use their talents and that sometimes individuals can change those beliefs and customs in ways that will help people to succeed more easily in the future
   6. Knows various forms that institutions take (e.g., religious, social, political)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands that being a member of a group can increase an individual's social power and also can increase hostile actions toward or from other groups or individuals
   2. Understands that most groups have formal or informal procedures for arbitrating disputes among their members
   3. Understands how various institutions (e.g., banks, schools, hospitals, the military) influence people, events, and elements of culture and how people interact with different institutions
   4. Understands how role, status, and social class may affect interactions of individuals and social groups
   5. Understands how tensions might arise between expressions of individuality and group or institutional efforts to promote social conformity
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands that conflict between people or groups may arise from competition over ideas, resources, power, and/or status
   2. Understands that social change, or the prospect of it, promotes conflict because social, economic, and political changes usually benefit some groups more than others (which is also true of the status quo)
   3. Understands that conflicts are especially difficult to resolve in situations in which there are few choices and little room for compromise
   4. Understands that some informal ways of responding to conflict (e.g., pamphlets, demonstrations, cartoons) may reduce tensions and lead to compromise but may be inflammatory and make agreement more difficult to reach
   5. Understands that conflict within a group may be reduced by conflict between it and other groups
   6. Understands that intergroup conflict does not necessarily end when one segment of society gets a decision in its favor because the "losers" then may work even harder to reverse, modify, or circumvent the change
   7. Understands that even when the majority of people in a society agree on a social decision, the minority who disagree must be protected from oppression, just as the majority may need protection against unfair retaliation from the minority
   8. Understands how various institutions (e.g., social, religious, political) develop and change over time (i.e., what is taught in school and school policies toward student behavior have changed over the years in response to family and community pressures), and how they further both continuity and change in societies
   9. Understands how changes in social and political institutions (e.g., church, school, political party) both reflect and affect individuals' career choices, values, and significant actions
   10. Understands that the decisions of one generation both provide and limit the range of possibilities open to the next generation
   11. Understands that mass media, migrations, and conquest affect social change by exposing one culture to another, and that extensive borrowing among cultures has led to the virtual disappearance of some cultures but only modest change in others