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Behavioral Studies

Standard 3.Understands that interactions among learning, inheritance, and physical development affect human behavior
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that people use their senses to find out about their surroundings and themselves and that different senses provide different information
   2. Understands that sometimes a person can get different information about the same thing by moving closer to it or further away from it
   3. Understands that some of the things people do (e.g., playing soccer, reading, writing) must be deliberately learned
   4. Understands that practice helps people to improve, and that how well a person learns sometimes depends on how she or he does it as well as how often and how hard she or he tries to learn
   5. Knows that people can learn from each other in many ways (e.g., telling and listening, showing and watching, imitating)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that human beings have different interests, motivations, skills, and talents
   2. Understands that human beings can use the memory of their past experiences to make judgments about new situations
   3. Understands that many skills can be practiced until they become automatic, and that if the right skills are practiced, performance may improve
   4. Understands that human beings tend to repeat behaviors that feel good or have pleasant consequences and to avoid behaviors that feel bad or have unpleasant consequences
   5. Knows that learning means using what one already knows to make sense out of new experiences or information, not just storing the new information in one's head
   6. Understands roles as learned behavior patterns in group situations (e.g., student, family member, team member)
   7. Understands that as roles vary depending on expectations and changing conditions (e.g., worker, parent, volunteer, student), behavior, attitudes, and goals change
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands that all behavior is affected by both inheritance and experience
   2. Knows that some animal species are limited to a repertoire of genetically determined behaviors and others have more complex brains and can learn a wide variety of behaviors
   3. Understands that the level of skill a person can reach in any particular activity depends on a variety of factors (e.g., innate abilities, amount of practice, the use of appropriate learning technologies)
   4. Knows that human beings can detect a tremendous range of visual and olfactory stimuli and that the strongest stimulus they can tolerate may be more than a trillion times as intense as the weakest they can detect, but there are many kinds of signals in the world that people cannot detect directly
   5. Understands that paying attention to any one input of information usually reduces the ability to attend to others at the same time
   6. Understands that learning often results from two perceptions or actions occurring at about the same time, and the more often the same combination occurs, the stronger the mental connection between them is likely to be
   7. Understands that occasionally a single vivid experience will connect two things permanently in people's minds
   8. Understands that language and tools enable human beings to learn complicated and varied things from others
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands that differences in the behavior of individuals arise from the interaction of heredity and experience
   2. Understands that even instinctive behavior may not develop well if a person is exposed to abnormal conditions
   3. Understands that expectations, moods, and prior experiences of human beings can affect how they interpret new perceptions or ideas
   4. Understands that people might ignore evidence that challenges their beliefs and more readily accept evidence that supports them
   5. Understands that the context in which something is learned may limit the contexts in which the learning can be used
   6. Knows that human thinking involves the interaction of ideas, and ideas about ideas
   7. Knows that people can produce many associations internally without receiving information from their senses