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List of Benchmarks for Behavioral Studies

Standard 2.Understands various meanings of social group, general implications of group membership, and different ways that groups function
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that people belong to some groups because they are born into them and to some groups because they join them
   2. Knows unique features of different groups to which she or he belongs (e.g., family, team, class), and also features of these groups that overlap with other groups
   3. Understands that different groups, societies, and cultures have some similar wants and needs
   4. Knows that people tend to live in families and communities in which individuals have different roles
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Understands that people often like or dislike other people because of membership in or exclusion from a particular social group
   2. Understands that individuals tend to support members of their own groups and may think of them as being like themselves
   3. Understands that different groups have different expectations for how their members should act
   4. Understands that the "rules" for group behaviors and expectations sometimes are written down and strictly enforced or are just understood from example
   5. Understands that members of a group and even people in a crowd sometimes do and say things, good or bad, that they would not do or say on their own
   6. Understands that different groups, societies, and cultures may have different ways of meeting similar wants and needs
   7. Knows that language, stories, folktales, music, and artistic creations are expressions of culture
   8. Understands that "social group" has many meanings (e.g., any set of people who regularly spend time together for any reason; groups classified according to region or occupation such as Southerners or blue-collar workers; groups that people formally and deliberately join or are assigned to such as sororities, military units, scouts, street gangs, or the Shriners)
   9. Understands that although rules at home, school, church, and in the community usually remain the same, sometimes they change for various reasons (e.g., some rules do not work, new people are involved, outside circumstances change)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands that affiliation with a group can increase the power of members through pooled resources and concerted action
   2. Understands that joining a group often has personal advantages (e.g., companionship, sense of identity, recognition by others inside and outside the group)
   3. Understands that group identity may create a feeling of superiority, which increases group cohesion, but may also occasion hostility toward and/or from other groups
   4. Understands that people sometimes react to all members of a group as though they were the same and perceive in their behavior only those qualities that fit preconceptions of the group (i.e., stereotyping) which leads to uncritical judgments (e.g., showing blind respect for members of some groups and equally blind disrespect for members of other groups)
   5. Understands that a variety of factors (e.g., belief systems, learned behavior patterns) contribute to the ways in which groups respond differently to their physical and social environments and to the wants and needs of their members
   6. Understands how language, literature, the arts, architecture, other artifacts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behaviors contribute to the development and transmission of culture
   7. Understands that there are similarities and differences within groups as well as among groups
   8. Understands that a large society may be made up of many groups, and these groups may contain many distinctly different subcultures (e.g., associated with region, ethnic origin, social class, interests, values)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands that while a group may act, hold beliefs, and/or present itself as a cohesive whole, individual members may hold widely varying beliefs, so the behavior of a group may not be predictable from an understanding of each of its members
   2. Understands that social organizations may serve business, political, or social purposes beyond those for which they officially exist, including unstated ones such as excluding certain categories of people from activities
   3. Understands how the diverse elements that contribute to the development and transmission of culture (e.g., language, literature, the arts, traditions, beliefs, values, behavior patterns) function as an integrated whole
   4. Understands that groups have patterns for preserving and transmitting culture even as they adapt to environmental and/or social change
   5. Understands that social groups may have patterns of behavior, values, beliefs, and attitudes that can help or hinder cross-cultural understanding