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List of Benchmarks for Behavioral Studies

Standard 1.Understands that group and cultural influences contribute to human development, identity, and behavior
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Understands that people are alike in many ways and different in many ways
   2. Understands that different families and classrooms have different rules and patterns of behavior, but there are some behaviors that are not accepted in most families or schools
   3. Understands that people often choose to do the same kinds of things that their friends do (e.g., dress, talk, act), but that people also often choose to do certain things their own ways
   4. Understands that the groups to which a person belongs (e.g., family, friends, team, community) influence in varying degrees how she or he thinks and acts
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Understands that people can learn about others in many different ways (e.g., direct experience, mass communications media, conversations with others about their work and lives)
   2. Understands that people sometimes imitate people or characters they see presented in the media
   3. Understands that people might feel uncomfortable around other people who dress, talk, or act very differently from themselves
   4. Understands that "acceptable" human behavior varies from culture to culture and from one time period to another, but there are some behaviors that are "unacceptable" in almost all cultures, past and present
   5. Understands that various factors (e.g., interests, capabilities, values) contribute to the shaping of a person's identity
   6. Understands that the way a person views an incident reflects personal beliefs, experiences, and attitudes
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands that each culture has distinctive patterns of behavior that are usually practiced by most of the people who grow up in it
   2. Understands that usually within any society there is broad general agreement on what behavior is "unacceptable," but that the standards used to judge behavior vary for different settings and different subgroups and may change with time and in response to different political and economic conditions
   3. Understands that punishments vary widely among, and even within, different societies
   4. Understands that technology, especially in transportation and communication, is increasingly important in spreading ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society and among different societies
   5. Understands that various factors (e.g., wants and needs, talents, interests, influence of family and peers and media) affect decisions that individuals make
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands that cultural beliefs strongly influence the values and behavior of the people who grow up in the culture, often without their being fully aware of it, and that people have different responses to these influences
   2. Understands that punishment for "unacceptable" social behavior depends partly on beliefs about the purposes of punishment and about its effectiveness (which is difficult to test scientifically because circumstances vary greatly and because legal and ethical barriers interfere)
   3. Understands that social distinctions are a part of every culture, but they take many different forms (e.g., rigid classes based solely on parentage, gradations based on the acquisition of skill, wealth, and/or education)
   4. Understands that people often take differences (e.g., in speech, dress, behavior, physical features) to be signs of social class
   5. Understands that the difficulty of moving from one social class to another varies greatly with time, place, and economic circumstances
   6. Understands that heredity, culture, and personal experience interact in shaping human behavior, and that the relative importance of these influences is not clear in most circumstances
   7. Understands that family, gender, ethnicity, nationality, institutional affiliations, socioeconomic status, and other group and cultural influences contribute to the shaping of a person's identity