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List of Benchmarks for Science

Standard 9.Understands the sources and properties of energy
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate at this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that the Sun supplies heat and light to Earth  A 
   2. Knows that heat can be produced in many ways (e.g., burning, rubbing, mixing substances together)  A 
   3. Knows that electricity in circuits can produce light, heat, sound, and magnetic effects
   4. Knows that sound is produced by vibrating objects
   5. Knows that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object  A 
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that heat is often produced as a byproduct when one form of energy is converted to another form (e.g., when machines and living organisms convert stored energy to motion)
   2. Knows that heat can move from one object to another by conduction and that some materials conduct heat better than others  A 
   3. Knows that light can be reflected, refracted, or absorbed  A 
   4. Knows that the pitch of a sound depends on the frequency of the vibration producing it  A 
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows that energy is a property of many substances (e.g., heat energy is in the disorderly motion of molecules and in radiation; chemical energy is in the arrangement of atoms; mechanical energy is in moving bodies or in elastically distorted shapes; electrical energy is in the attraction or repulsion between charges)  A 
   2. Understands the law of conservation of energy (i.e., energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form to another)  A 
   3. Knows that heat energy flows from warmer materials or regions to cooler ones through conduction, convection, and radiation  A 
   4. Knows how the Sun acts as a major source of energy for changes on the Earth’s surface (i.e., the Sun loses energy by emitting light; some of this light is transferred to the Earth in a range of wavelengths including visible light, infrared radiation, and ultraviolet radiation)  A 
   5. Knows that electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy to produce heat, light, sound, and chemical changes  A 
   6. Knows that most chemical and nuclear reactions involve a transfer of energy (e.g., heat, light, mechanical motion, electricity)  A 
   7. Knows that vibrations (e.g., sounds, earthquakes) move at different speeds in different materials, have different wavelengths, and set up wave-like disturbances that spread away from the source  A 
   8. Knows that waves (e.g., sound, seismic, water, light) have energy and interact with matter (e.g., light scattering) and can transfer energy (e.g., light absorption)  A 
   9. Knows that only a narrow range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation can be seen by the human eye; differences of wavelength within that range of visible light are perceived as differences in color
   10. Knows the organization of a simple electrical circuit (e.g., battery or generator, wire, a complete loop through which the electrical current can pass)  A 
   11. Understands the origins and environmental impacts of renewable and nonrenewable resources, including energy sources like fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas)  A 
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands the concept of entropy (e.g., although the total energy of the universe remains constant, matter tends to become steadily less ordered as various energy transfers occur; the energy tends to spread out uniformly, thereby decreasing the amount of useful energy)
   2. Knows that all energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy (energy of motion), potential energy (depends on relative position), or energy contained by a field (electromagnetic waves)
   3. Understands the relationship between heat and temperature (heat energy consists of the random motion and vibrations of atoms, molecules, and ions; the higher the temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion)  A 
   4. Knows how the energy associated with individual atoms and molecules can be used to identify the substances they comprise; each kind of atom or molecule can gain or lose energy only in particular discrete amounts, and thus can absorb and emit light only at wavelengths corresponding to these amounts
   5. Knows that nuclear reactions convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy (fission involves the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller pieces; fusion is the joining of two nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure) and release much greater amounts of energy than atomic interactions  A 
   6. Understands that waves have characteristic properties (e.g., wavelength, frequency, amplitude, speed) and behaviors (e.g., reflection, refraction, transmission, interference)   A 
   7. Knows the range of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, gamma rays); electromagnetic waves result when a charged object is accelerated or decelerated, and the energy of electromagnetic waves is carried in packets whose magnitude is inversely proportional to the wavelength

 A  = Assessment items available