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Standard 4.Understands the principles of heredity and related concepts
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate at this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that plants and animals closely resemble their parents
   2. Knows that differences exist among individuals of the same kind of plant or animal
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that many characteristics of plants and animals are inherited from its parents (e.g., eye color in human beings, fruit or flower color in plants), and other characteristics result from an individual’s interactions with the environment (e.g., people’s table manners, ability to ride a bicycle)  A 
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows that reproduction is a characteristic of all living things and is essential to the continuation of a species  A 
   2. Knows that for sexually reproducing organisms, a species comprises all organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring  A 
   3. Understands asexual and sexual reproduction (e.g., in asexual reproduction, all the genes come from a single parent; in sexual reproduction, an egg and sperm unite and half of the genes come from each parent, so the offspring is never identical to either of its parents; sexual reproduction allows for greater genetic diversity; asexual reproduction limits the spread of disadvantageous characteristics through a species)  A 
   4. Knows that hereditary information is contained in genes (located in the chromosomes of each cell), each of which carries a single unit of information; an inherited trait of an individual can be determined by either one or many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait  A 
   5. Knows that the characteristics of an organism can be described in terms of a combination of traits; some traits are inherited through the coding of genetic material and others result from environmental factors  A 
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows the chemical and structural properties of DNA and its role in specifying the characteristics of an organism (e.g., DNA is a large polymer formed from four kinds of subunits; genetic information is encoded in genes as a string of these subunits; each DNA molecule in a cell forms a single chromosome and is replicated by a templating mechanism)
   2. Knows ways in which genes (segments of DNA molecules) may be altered and combined to create genetic variation within a species (e.g., recombination of genetic material; mutations; errors in copying genetic material during cell division)  A 
   3. Knows that new heritable characteristics can only result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in an organism’s sex cells; other changes in an organism cannot be passed on
   4. Knows that mutations and new gene combinations may have positive, negative, or no effects on the organism
   5. Understands the concepts of Mendelian genetics (e.g., segregation, independent assortment, dominant and recessive traits, sex-linked traits)
   6. Knows features of human genetics (e.g., most of the cells in a human contain two copies of each of 22 chromosomes; in addition, one pair of chromosomes determines sex [XX or XY]; transmission of genetic information to offspring occurs through egg and sperm cells that contain only one representative from each chromosome pair; dominant and recessive traits explain how variations that are hidden in one generation can be expressed in the next)

 A  = Assessment items available