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List of Benchmarks for Science

Standard 13.Understands the scientific enterprise
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Knows that students can do science
   2. Knows basic safety procedures in investigations
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that in science it is helpful to work with a team and share findings with others
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that people of all ages, backgrounds, and groups have made contributions to science and technology throughout history
   2. Knows that although people using scientific inquiry have learned much about the objects, events, and phenomena in nature, science is an ongoing process and will never be finished
   3. Knows that scientists and engineers often work in teams to accomplish a task
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows that people of all backgrounds and with diverse interests, talents, qualities, and motivations engage in fields of science and engineering; some of these people work in teams and others work alone, but all communicate extensively with others
   2. Knows that the work of science requires a variety of human abilities, qualities, and habits of mind (e.g., reasoning, insight, energy, skill, creativity, intellectual honesty, tolerance of ambiguity, skepticism, openness to new ideas)
   3. Knows various settings in which scientists and engineers may work (e.g., colleges and universities, businesses and industries, research institutes, government agencies)
   4. Understands ethics associated with scientific study (e.g., potential subjects must be fully informed of the risks and benefits associated with the research and their right to refuse to participate; potential subjects must be fully informed of possible risks to community and property)
   5. Knows that throughout history, many scientific innovators have had difficulty breaking through accepted ideas of their time to reach conclusions that are now considered to be common knowledge
   6. Knows ways in which science and society influence one another (e.g., scientific knowledge and the procedures used by scientists influence the way many individuals think about themselves, others, and the environment; societal challenges often inspire questions for scientific research; social and economic forces strongly influence which science research programs are pursued and funded)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows that, throughout history, diverse cultures have developed scientific ideas and solved human problems through technology
   2. Understands that individuals and teams contribute to science and engineering at different levels of complexity (e.g., an individual may conduct basic field studies; hundreds of people may work together on a major scientific question or technological problem)
   3. Understands the ethical traditions associated with the scientific enterprise (e.g., commitment to peer review, truthful reporting about the methods and outcomes of investigations, publication of the results of work) and that scientists who violate these traditions are censored by their peers
   4. Knows that science and technology are essential social enterprises, but alone they can only indicate what can happen, not what should happen
   5. Understands that science involves different types of work in many different disciplines (e.g., scientists in different disciplines ask different questions, use different methods of investigation, and accept different types of evidence to support their explanations; many scientific investigations require the contributions of individuals from different disciplines; new disciplines of science, such as geophysics and biochemistry, often emerge at the interface of older disciplines)
   6. Knows that creativity, imagination, and a good knowledge base are all required in the work of science and engineering