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List of Benchmarks for Science

Standard 10.Understands forces and motion
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1.  Knows the effects of forces (e.g., wind, gravity) in nature
   2. Knows that objects can be moved in space in a number of ways (e.g., pushing, pulling, sinking)
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that magnets can be used to make some things move without being touched
   2. Knows that things near the Earth fall to the ground unless something holds them up  A 
   3. Knows that the position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or the background  A 
   4. Knows that the position and motion of an object can be changed by pushing or pulling
   5. Knows that things move in many different ways (e.g., straight line, zigzag, vibration, circular motion)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that magnets attract and repel each other and attract certain kinds of other materials (e.g., iron, steel)  A 
   2. Knows that the Earth’s gravity pulls any object toward it without touching it
   3. Knows that electrically charged material pulls on all other materials and can attract or repel other charged materials
   4. Knows that an object’s motion can be described by tracing and measuring its position over time
   5. Knows that when a force is applied to an object, the object either speeds up, slows down, or goes in a different direction
   6. Knows the relationship between the strength of a force and its effect on an object (e.g., the greater the force, the greater the change in motion; the more massive the object, the smaller the effect of a given force)  A 
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands general concepts related to gravitational force (e.g., every object exerts gravitational force on every other object; this force depends on the mass of the objects and their distance from one another; gravitational force is hard to detect unless at least one of the objects, such as the Earth, has a lot of mass)  A 
   2. Knows that just as electric currents can produce magnetic forces, magnets can cause electric currents  A 
   3. Knows that an object’s motion can be described and represented graphically according to its position, direction of motion, and speed  A 
   4. Understands effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object’s motion (e.g., if more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another, depending on their direction and magnitude; unbalanced forces, such as friction, will cause changes in the speed or direction on an object’s motion)  A 
   5. Knows that an object that is not being subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line  A 
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows that magnetic forces are very closely related to electric forces and can be thought of as different aspects of a single electromagnetic force (moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces); the interplay of these forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, radio, television, and many other modern technologies  A 
   2. Knows that nuclear forces are much stronger than electromagnetic forces, which are vastly stronger than gravitational forces; the strength of nuclear forces explains why great amounts of energy are released from the nuclear reactions in atomic or hydrogen bombs, and in the Sun and other stars
   3. Knows that the strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them  A 
   4. Knows that the strength of the electric force between two charged objects is proportional to the charges (opposite charges attract whereas like charges repel) and, as with gravitation, inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them  A 
   5. Knows that electromagnetic forces exist within and between atoms (e.g., electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold atoms and molecules together, and are involved in all chemical reactions; electric forces hold solid and liquid materials together and act between objects when they are in contact)
   6. Knows how different kinds of materials respond to electric forces (e.g., as insulators, semiconductors, conductors, superconductors)  A 
   7. Knows that materials that contain equal proportions of positive and negative charges are electrically neutral, but a very small excess or deficit of negative charges in a material produces noticeable electric forces
   8. Knows that laws of motion can be used to determine the effects of forces on the motion of objects (e.g., objects change their motion only when a net force is applied; whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object; the magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F=ma, which is independent of the nature of the force)  A 
   9. Knows that apparent changes in wavelength can provide information about changes in motion because the observed wavelength of a wave depends upon the relative motion of the source and the observer; if either the source or observer is moving toward the other, the observed wavelength is shorter; if either is moving away, the wavelength is longer  A 
   10. Understands general concepts related to the theory of special relativity (e.g., in contrast to other moving things, the speed of light is the same for all observers, no matter how they or the light source happen to be moving; the laws of physics are the same in any inertial frame of reference)

 A  = Assessment items available