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List of Benchmarks for Technology

Standard 5.Understands the nature and operation of systems
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that most things are made of parts and they may not work if some parts are missing
   2. Knows that when parts are put together, they can do things that they couldn’t do by themselves
   3. Understands how some elements of simple systems work together (e.g., people in a restaurant, parts of a bicycle)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that when things are made up of many parts, the parts usually affect one another
   2. Knows that things that are made of parts may not work well if a part is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or misconnected
   3. Assembles and disassembles simple systems (e.g., familiar hardware devices)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows that a system can include processes as well as components
   2. Knows how part of a system can provide feedback when its output (in the form of material, energy, or information) becomes input for another part of the system
   3. Identifies the elements, structure, sequence, operation, and control of systems
   4. Assembles and disassembles systems to manage, control, and improve their performance (e.g., a computer program, a simple machine based on a pulley mechanism)
   5. Knows that systems are usually linked to other systems, both internally and externally, and can contain subsystems as well as operate as subsystems
   6. Knows that an open-loop system (e.g., a microwave as a heating system) has no feedback and requires human intervention, where a closed-loop system (e.g., a household heating system with a thermostat) uses feedback
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows that a system usually has some properties that are different from those of its parts, but appear because of the interaction of those parts
   2. Knows that understanding how things work and designing solutions to problems of almost any kind can be facilitated by systems thinking, which employs mathematical modeling and simulation
   3. Knows that in defining a system, it is important to specify its boundaries and subsystems, indicate its relation to other systems, and identify what its input and its output are expected to be
   4. Knows how feedback can be used to help monitor, control, and stabilize the operation of a system
   5. Knows that even in simple systems, accurate prediction of the effect of changing some part of the system is not always possible
   6. Constructs and operates systems (e.g., organizes and adjusts subsystems)
   7. Knows that complex systems are subject to failure and are designed with various elements and procedures (e.g., performance testing, overdesign, redundancy, more controls) that help reduce system failure
   8. Knows that systems are embedded within larger systems, including technological, social, and environmental systems