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Standard 20.Understands the roles of political parties, campaigns, elections, and associations and groups in American politics
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands the role of political parties (e.g., structure the vote for the electorate, present issues, link government to the citizenry, organize the legislative and executive branches)
   2. Knows the various kinds of elections (e.g., primary and general, local and state, congressional, presidential, recall)
   3. Understands the ways in which individuals can participate in political parties, campaigns, and elections
   4. Understands the historical and contemporary roles of prominent associations and groups in local, state, and national politics (e.g., historical associations such as abolitionists, suffragists, labor unions, civil rights groups; religious organizations and contemporary associations such as AFL-CIO, National Education Association, Common Cause, League of Women Voters, Greenpeace, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
   5. Knows how and why Americans become members of associations and groups, and understands how membership in these associations provides individuals with opportunities to participate in the political process.
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows the origins and development of the two party system in the United States, and understands the role of third parties
   2. Understands how and why American political parties differ from ideological parties in other countries
   3. Knows the major characteristics of American political parties, how they vary by locality, how they reflect the dispersion of power, and how they provide citizens with numerous opportunities for participation
   4. Understands how political parties are involved in channeling public opinion, allowing people to act jointly, nominating candidates, conducting campaigns, and training future leaders; and understands why political parties in the United States are weaker today than they have been at times in the past
   5. Knows the characteristics of initiatives and referendums
   6. Understands the significance of campaigns and elections in the American political system, and knows current criticisms of campaigns and proposals for their reform
   7. Knows historical and contemporary examples of associations and groups performing functions otherwise performed by the government such as social welfare and education
   8. Understands the extent to which associations and groups enhance citizen participation in American political life