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Standard 2.Understands the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that people in positions of authority have limits on their authority (e.g., a crossing guard cannot act as an umpire at a baseball game)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows the basic conditions necessary to support a limited government (e.g., everyone, including all the people in positions of authority, must obey the laws)
   2. Knows how laws can limit the power of people in government (e.g., laws that prohibit a teacher from releasing personal information about students to people other than the students' parents or guardians; laws that prohibit governments from discriminating against people because of their religious or political beliefs)
   3. Knows the general characteristics of unlimited government (e.g., a dictatorship in which there are no effective controls over the powers of its rulers; the rulers cannot be easily removed from office by peaceful, legal means)
   4. Understands how limited government helps to protect personal rights (e.g., to choose friends, to practice the religion of one's choice), political rights (e.g., to express opinions, to vote), and economic rights (e.g., to own property, to choose the kind of work one pleases)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows some of the restraints placed on a limited government's power (e.g., the legal limits placed on the political power of constitutional government)
   2. Understands the basic structure of authoritarian systems and totalitarian systems, and how these systems are considered unlimited governments
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands what "civil society" is and how it provides opportunities for individuals to associate for social, cultural, religious, economic, and political purposes (e.g., family, friendships, membership in organizations, participation in unions and business enterprises)
   2. Understands how civil society allows for individuals or groups to influence government in ways other than voting and elections
   3. Understands how the individual, social, and economic relationships that make up civil society have been used to maintain limited government
   4. Understands how relationships between government and civil society in constitutional democracies differ from those in authoritarian and totalitarian regimes
   5. Knows essential political freedoms (e.g., freedom of religion, speech) and economic freedoms (e.g., freedom to enter into contracts, to choose one's own employment), and understands competing ideas about the relationships between the two (e.g., that political freedom is more important than economic freedom, that political and economic freedom are inseparable)
   6. Understands how political and economic freedoms serve to limit governmental power