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Standard 19.Understands what is meant by "the public agenda," how it is set, and how it is influenced by public opinion and the media
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows that the public agenda consists of those matters that occupy public attention at any particular time (e.g., crime, health care education, child care, environmental protection, drug abuse)
   2. Knows how the public agenda is shaped by political leaders, interest groups, and state and federal courts; and understands how individual citizens can help shape the public agenda (e.g., by joining interest groups or political parties, making presentations at public meetings, writing letters to government officials and to newspapers)
   3. Understands the importance of freedom of the press to informed participation in the political system; and understands the influence of television, radio, the press, newsletters, and emerging means of electronic communication on American politics
   4. Knows how Congress, the president, the Supreme Court, and state and local public officials use the media to communicate with the citizenry
   5. Understands how citizens can evaluate information and arguments received from various sources so that they can make reasonable choices on public issues and among candidates for political office
   6. Understands the opportunities that the media provides for individuals to monitor the actions of their government (e.g., televised broadcasts of proceedings of governmental agencies such as Congress and the courts, public officials' press conferences) and communicate their concerns and positions on current issues (e.g., letters to the editor, talk shows, "op-ed pages," public opinion polls)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how political institutions and political parties shape the public agenda
   2. Understands why issues important to some groups and the nation do not become part of the public agenda
   3. Understands the concept of public opinion, and knows alternative views of the proper role of public opinion in a democracy
   4. Understands how public opinion is measured, used in public debate, and how it can be influenced by the government and the media
   5. Understands the influence that public opinion has on public policy and the behavior of public officials
   6. Understands the ways in which television, radio, the press, newsletters, and emerging means of communication influence American politics; and understands the extent to which various traditional forms of political persuasion have been replaced by electronic media
   7. Knows how to use criteria such as logical validity, factual accuracy, emotional appeal, distorted evidence, and appeals to bias or prejudice in order to evaluate various forms of historical and contemporary political communication (e.g., Lincoln's "House Divided," Sojourner Truth's "Ain't I a Woman?," Chief Joseph's "I Shall Fight No More Forever," Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream," campaign advertisements, political cartoons)