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Standard 18.Understands the role and importance of law in the American constitutional system and issues regarding the judicial protection of individual rights
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that the judicial branch, headed by the Supreme Court, makes decisions concerning the law that aim to protect individual rights (e.g., the right to a fair trial, to vote, to practice one's religious beliefs) and promote the common good (e.g., upholding laws that protect the rights of all people to equal opportunity)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands the importance of the rule of law in establishing limits on both those who govern and the governed, protecting individual rights, and promoting the common good
   2. Knows historical and contemporary examples of the rule of law (e.g., Marbury v. Madison, Brown v. Board of Education, U.S. v. Nixon)
   3. Knows principal varieties of law (e.g., constitutional, criminal, civil), and understands how the principal varieties of law protect individual rights and promote the common good
   4. Understands criteria for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of a rule or law by determining if it is understandable (i.e., clearly written with explicit requirements), possible to follow (i.e., does not demand the impossible), fair, well designed to achieve its purposes, and designed to protect individual rights and to promote the common good
   5. Understands the process necessary for drafting rules in his/her school or community that meets the criteria for a well-constructed rule or law
   6. Understands the basic concept of due process of law (i.e., government must use fair procedures to gather information and make decisions in order to protect the rights of individuals and the interests of society)
   7. Understands the importance to individuals and to society of major due process protections such as habeas corpus, presumption of innocence, fair notice, impartial tribunal, speedy and public trials, right to counsel, trial by jury, right against self incrimination, protection against double jeopardy, right of appeal
   8. Understands why due process rights in administrative and legislative procedures are essential for the protection of individual rights and the maintenance of limited government (e.g., the right to adequate notice of a hearing that may affect one’s interests, the right to counsel in legislative hearings)
   9. Understands the advantages and disadvantages of the adversary system and the advantages and disadvantages of alternative means of conflict management (e.g., negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and litigation)
   10. Knows the basic principles of the juvenile system and the major differences between the due process rights of juveniles and adults
   11. Understands current issues regarding judicial protection of the rights of individuals
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how the rule of law makes possible a system of ordered liberty that protects the basic rights of citizens
   2. Knows historical and contemporary practices that illustrate the central place of the rule of law (e.g., submitting bills to legal counsel to insure congressional compliance with constitutional limitations, higher court review of lower court compliance with the law, executive branch compliance with laws enacted by Congress)
   3. Knows historical and contemporary events and practices that illustrate the absence or breakdown of the rule of law (e.g., events such as vigilantism in the early West, Ku Klux Klan attacks, urban riots, corruption in government and business, police corruption, organized crime; practices such as illegal searches and seizures, bribery, interfering with the right to vote, perjury)
   4. Knows historical and contemporary illustrations of the idea of equal protection of the laws for all persons (e.g., the Fourteenth Amendment, Americans with Disabilities Act, equal opportunity legislation)
   5. Understands how the individual's rights to life, liberty, and property are protected by the trial and appellate levels of the judicial process and by the principal varieties of law (e.g., constitutional, criminal, and civil law)
   6. Understands the effects of Americans relying on the legal system to solve social, economic, and political problems rather than using other means, such as private negotiations, mediation, and participation in the political process
   7. Understands the importance of an independent judiciary in a constitutional democracy
   8. Knows historical and contemporary instances in which judicial protections have not been extended to all persons and instances in which judicial protections have been extended to those deprived of them in the past
   9. Understands why due process rights in administrative and legislative procedures are essential for protecting individual rights and maintaining limited government
   10. Knows how state and federal courts’ power of judicial review reflects the American idea of constitutional government (i.e., limited government) and understands the merits of arguments for and against judicial review