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Standard 16.Understands the major responsibilities of the national government for domestic and foreign policy, and understands how government is financed through taxation
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands how and why domestic policies affect American citizens' lives, and knows historical and contemporary examples of important domestic policies (e.g., Pure Food and Drug Act, Environmental Protection Act, civil rights laws, minimum wage laws, Social Security)
   2. Understands how and why foreign policies affect the lives of American citizens, and knows historical and contemporary examples of important foreign policies (e.g., Monroe Doctrine, Marshall Plan, immigration acts, arms control, promoting democracy and human rights throughout the world)
   3. Understands why taxation is necessary to pay for government, and knows which provisions of the United States Constitution give the national government the right to collect taxes (i.e., Article One, Sections 7 and 8; Sixteenth Amendment)
   4. Knows major sources of revenue for the national government (e.g., individual income taxes, social insurance receipts such as Social Security and Medicare, borrowing, taxes on corporations and businesses, estate and excise taxes, tariffs on foreign goods)
   5. Knows major uses of tax revenues received by the national government (e.g. direct payments to individuals such as Social Security, Medicaid, Medicare, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children; national defense; interest on the federal debt; interstate highways)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how specific foreign policies such as national security and trade policy affect the everyday lives of American citizens and their communities
   2. Understands competing arguments concerning the role of government in major areas of domestic and foreign policy (e.g., health care, education, child care, regulation of business and industry, foreign aid, intervention abroad)
   3. Understands the tensions that results from citizens' desire for government services and benefits and their unwillingness to pay taxes for them
   4. Knows the history of taxation in the United States
   5. Understands the equity of various kinds of taxes