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Standard 1.Understands ideas about civic life, politics, and government
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows examples of situations in which individuals are acting on their own (e.g., two friends decide to do something) and situations in which individuals' actions are directed by others (e.g., parents tell their children to do something)
   2. Knows examples of authority (e.g., a teacher tells a group of students to do something) and power without authority (e.g., an older, larger student tells a group of younger students to do something)
   3. Knows some of the problems that might result from lack of effective authority (e.g., inability to settle disputes or accomplish necessary tasks)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows various people and groups who make, apply, and enforce rules and laws for others (e.g., adult family members, teachers, city councils, governors, tribal governments, national governments) and who manage disputes about rules and laws (e.g., courts at all levels)
   2. Knows the difference between power (e.g., the capacity to direct or control something or someone) and authority (e.g., power that people have the right to use because of custom, law, or the consent of the governed)
   3. Knows ways in which authority is used (e.g., parents have authority to direct and control their children, governors of states have the authority to carry out and enforce laws) and ways in which power can be used without authority (e.g., a bully forcing smaller children to give up their lunch money, a robber holding up a bank)
   4. Knows possible consequences of the absence of government and rules and laws (e.g., the strong may take advantage of the weak, people may become disorderly or violent, people may feel insecure or be unable to plan for the future)
   5. Knows the basic purposes of government in the United States (e.g., to protect the rights of individuals, to promote the common good)
   6. Knows the major things governments do in one's school, community, state, and nation (e.g., make, carry out, and enforce laws; manage conflicts; provide national security)
   7. Knows how government makes it possible for people to work together to accomplish goals they could not achieve individually
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Distinguishes between private life and civic life (e.g., private life concerns the personal life of the individual such as being with family and friends or practicing one's religious beliefs, civic life concerns taking part in government such as helping to find solutions to problems or helping to make rules and laws)
   2. Understands how politics enables people with differing ideas to reach binding agreements (e.g., presenting information and evidence, stating arguments, negotiating, compromising, voting)
   3. Knows institutions that have the authority to direct or control the behavior of members of a society (e.g., a school board, state legislature, courts, Congress)
   4. Understands major ideas about why government is necessary (e.g., people's lives, liberty, and property would be insecure without government; individuals by themselves cannot do many of the things they can do collectively such as create a highway system, provide armed forces for the security of the nation, or make and enforce laws)
   5. Understands competing ideas about the purposes government should serve (e.g., whether government should protect individual rights, promote the common good, provide economic security, mold the character of citizens, promote a particular religion)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how politics enables a group of people with varying opinions and/or interests to reach collective decisions, influence decisions, and accomplish goals that they could not reach as individuals (e.g., managing the distribution of resources, allocating benefits and burdens, managing conflicts)
   2. Knows formal institutions that have the authority to make and implement binding decisions (e.g., tribal councils, courts, monarchies, democratic legislatures)
   3. Understands the nature of political authority (e.g., characteristics such as legitimacy, stability, limitations)
   4. Understands the sources of political authority (e.g., consent of the governed, birth, knowledge) and its functions (e.g., create and enforce laws)
   5. Understands why politics is found wherever people gather as a group (e.g., it enables groups to reach collective, binding decisions that can be enforced)
   6. Understands major arguments for the necessity of politics and government (e.g., people cannot fulfill their potential without politics and government, people would be insecure or endangered without government, people working collectively can accomplish goals and solve problems they could not achieve alone)
   7. Understands some of the major competing ideas about the purposes of politics and government (e.g., achieving a religious vision, glorifying the state, enhancing economic prosperity, providing for a nation's security), and knows examples of past and present governments that serve these purposes
   8. Understands how the purposes served by a government affect relationships between the individual and government and between government and society as a whole (e.g., the purpose of promoting a religious vision of what society should be like may require a government to restrict individual thought and actions, and place strict controls on the whole of the society)