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List of Benchmarks for Science 
 Standard 10.Understands forces and motion
  
TopicForces and motion
   Level IV (Grade 9-12)
  Benchmark 8.Knows that laws of motion can be used to determine the effects of forces on the motion of objects (e.g., objects change their motion only when a net force is applied; whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object; the magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F=ma, which is independent of the nature of the force)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  Newton’s Laws of Motion
B.  net force
C.  F=ma
D.  law of inertia
E.  change of motion
F.  equal and opposite force
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Knows that F=ma is independent of the nature of the force  A   
  2. Knows that objects change motion only when a net force is applied  A   
  3. Knows that when one object exerts force on another, a force of equal magnitude is exerted on the first object   
  4. Knows that when one object exerts force on another, a force opposite in direction is exerted on first object   
  5. Knows that the magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated by using F=ma  A   


 A  = Assessment items available

Citation Log: BD(2E,91,92;​IB2I,25;​CAE,157-158;​IBPE,48,67,79;​N3I,82;​NSE,36;​PE,112-113;​SE,179-180)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
2   Project 2061: Benchmarks for Science Literacy
CA   CDE: Science Framework for California Public Schools
CB   College Board Standards for College Success
DoD   Department of Defense curriculum for Prekindergarten science
FR   France: Pre-Elementary School Program
H   Headstart Child Outcomes Framework
IB1   International Baccalaureate: Primary Years Programme curriculum documents
IB2   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Program Sciences Guide
IBB   International Baccalaureate: Biology
IBC   International Baccalaureate: Chemistry
IBE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems and Societies Guide
IBP   International Baccalaureate: Physics
IL   Illinois Early Learning Standards
K   Standards for Success
L   Louisana Pre-Kindergarten Content Standards
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N1   New Standards: Elementary School
N12   NAEP: Released items for grade 12
N2   New Standards: Middle School
N3   New Standards: High School
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8
NE   National Environmental Education Standards
NS   Science Assessment & Item Specifications for 2009 NAEP, Prepub. Ed.
NZ   New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
OL   Ocean Literacy: The essential principles of ocean sciences
P   Pearsall: NSTA: The Content Core
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   NRC: National Science Education Standards
T   TIMSS: Assesment framework for Science
T1   TIMSS: Released items for Population 1 (grade 4)
T2   TIMSS: Released items for Population 2 (grade 8)
T3   TIMSS: Released items for the final year of secondary school (grade 12)
TX1   Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines for Science
TX2   Texas College and Career Readiness Standards
UK   United Kingdom: Desirable Outcomes for Children’s Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Number:
Page number of the cited document