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List of Benchmarks for Science 
 Standard 10.Understands forces and motion
  
TopicForces and motion
   Level III (Grade 6-8)
  Benchmark 4.Understands effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object’s motion (e.g., if more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another, depending on their direction and magnitude; unbalanced forces, such as friction, will cause changes in the speed or direction on an object’s motion)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  attraction/repulsion
B.  balanced force
C.  effect of balanced forces
D.  effect of unbalanced forces
E.  friction
F.  unbalanced force
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Understands the effects of balanced forces on an object’s motion   
  2. Understands the effects of unbalanced forces on an object’s motion  A   
  3. Understands that if more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, they will reinforce or cancel one another depending on their direction and magnitude  A   P  
  4. Understands friction as an unbalanced force that can cause changes in the speed of an object’s motion  A   P  
  5. Understands friction as unbalanced force that can cause changes in the direction of an object’s motion   


 A  = Assessment items available

 P  = Performance expectation(s) available based on source documents

Citation Log: BD(2I,90;​CAE,130-131;​IB2I,25;​IBPE,47-48,79;​N2E,92;​NSE,36;​PI,104-105;​SE,154;​TE,64;​*)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
2   Project 2061: Benchmarks for Science Literacy
CA   CDE: Science Framework for California Public Schools
CB   College Board Standards for College Success
DoD   Department of Defense curriculum for Prekindergarten science
FR   France: Pre-Elementary School Program
H   Headstart Child Outcomes Framework
IB1   International Baccalaureate: Primary Years Programme curriculum documents
IB2   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Program Sciences Guide
IBB   International Baccalaureate: Biology
IBC   International Baccalaureate: Chemistry
IBE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems and Societies Guide
IBP   International Baccalaureate: Physics
IL   Illinois Early Learning Standards
K   Standards for Success
L   Louisana Pre-Kindergarten Content Standards
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N1   New Standards: Elementary School
N12   NAEP: Released items for grade 12
N2   New Standards: Middle School
N3   New Standards: High School
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8
NE   National Environmental Education Standards
NS   Science Assessment & Item Specifications for 2009 NAEP, Prepub. Ed.
NZ   New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
OL   Ocean Literacy: The essential principles of ocean sciences
P   Pearsall: NSTA: The Content Core
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   NRC: National Science Education Standards
T   TIMSS: Assesment framework for Science
T1   TIMSS: Released items for Population 1 (grade 4)
T2   TIMSS: Released items for Population 2 (grade 8)
T3   TIMSS: Released items for the final year of secondary school (grade 12)
TX1   Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines for Science
TX2   Texas College and Career Readiness Standards
UK   United Kingdom: Desirable Outcomes for Children’s Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Number:
Page number of the cited document