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List of Benchmarks for Science 
 Standard 8.Understands the structure and properties of matter
Topics1. Atomic structure; 2. Earth’s history
   Level IV (Grade 9-12)
  Benchmark 8.Knows how radioactive isotopes can be used to estimate the age of materials that contain them because radioactive isotopes undergo spontaneous nuclear reactions and emit particles and/or wavelike radiation; the decay of any one nucleus cannot be predicted, but a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate, which can be used to estimate the material’s age
   Vocabulary terms
A.  radioactive isotope
B.  decay rate
C.  radioactive dating
D.  spontaneous nuclear reaction
E.  particle emission
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Knows how radioactive isotopes can be used to estimate the age of materials that contain them   
  2. Knows how radioactive isotopes undergo spontaneous nuclear reaction   
  3. Knows that radioactive isotopes emit particles   
  4. Knows that radioactive isotopes emit wavelike radiation   
  5. Knows that the decay of one nucleus cannot be predicted   
  6. Knows that a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate which can estimate a material’s age  A   

 A  = Assessment items available

Citation Log: BD(2E,80;​CAE,218;​DI,2.4.5;​IBBI,96;​IBCI,107;​IBPE,61-62,76;​N3E,82;​PE,119;​SE,178)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
2   Project 2061: Benchmarks for Science Literacy
CA   CDE: Science Framework for California Public Schools
CB   College Board Standards for College Success
DoD   Department of Defense curriculum for Prekindergarten science
FR   France: Pre-Elementary School Program
H   Headstart Child Outcomes Framework
IB1   International Baccalaureate: Primary Years Programme curriculum documents
IB2   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Program Sciences Guide
IBB   International Baccalaureate: Biology
IBC   International Baccalaureate: Chemistry
IBE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems and Societies Guide
IBP   International Baccalaureate: Physics
IL   Illinois Early Learning Standards
K   Standards for Success
L   Louisana Pre-Kindergarten Content Standards
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N1   New Standards: Elementary School
N12   NAEP: Released items for grade 12
N2   New Standards: Middle School
N3   New Standards: High School
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8
NE   National Environmental Education Standards
NS   Science Assessment & Item Specifications for 2009 NAEP, Prepub. Ed.
NZ   New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
OL   Ocean Literacy: The essential principles of ocean sciences
P   Pearsall: NSTA: The Content Core
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   NRC: National Science Education Standards
T   TIMSS: Assesment framework for Science
T1   TIMSS: Released items for Population 1 (grade 4)
T2   TIMSS: Released items for Population 2 (grade 8)
T3   TIMSS: Released items for the final year of secondary school (grade 12)
TX1   Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines for Science
TX2   Texas College and Career Readiness Standards
UK   United Kingdom: Desirable Outcomes for Children’s Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document