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List of Benchmarks for Mathematics 
 Standard 3.Uses basic and advanced procedures while performing the processes of computation
Topics1. Estimation; 2. Communicating about mathematics; 3. Sets
   Level I (Grade K-2)
  Benchmark 3.Understands basic estimation strategies (e.g., using reference sets, using front-end digits) and terms (e.g., "about," "near," "closer to," "between," "a little less than")
   Vocabulary terms
A.  estimation
B.  reference set
C.  front-end digits
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Understands the term "about"   
  2. Understands the term "near"   
  3. Understands the term "closer to"   
  4. Understands the term "between"   
  5. Understands the term "a little less than"   
  6. Understands the concept of reference sets in estimation   
  7. Understands the concept of front-end estimation    
  8. Understands the concept of estimation as a strategy   

Citation Log: BD(MI,78;​PE,10;​S1E,60;​T1E)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
2   Project 2061: Benchmarks for Science Literacy
AC   ACT, College Readiness Standards
AD   American Diploma Project
B1   International Baccalaureate: Math, Primary
B2   International Baccalaureate: Math, Middle
B3   International Baccalaureate: Math, High
C   CBE: Standards for Excellence
C3   CBE: Standards for Excellence, end of grade 3
C5   CBE: Standards for Excellence, end of grade 5
CB   College Board: College Board Standards for College Success: Mathematics and Statistics
CO   CDE: Building Blocks to Colorado’s Content Standards
D   Department of Defense: Prekindergarten Mathematics
HS   Head Start: Child Outcomes Framework
M   NCTM: Principles & Standards for School Mathematics
MA   MDE (Massachusetts): Early Childhood Standards
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4 (2003)
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8 (2003)
P   NAEP: Mathematics Assessment Framework
PS   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
S1   New Standards: Elementary School
S2   New Standards: Middle School
S3   New Standards: High School
T   TEA: Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines
T1   TIMSS: Population 1 assessed grade 4 (released 1998)
T2   TIMSS: Population 2 assessed grade 8 (released 1998)
T3   TIMSS: Final Year assessed grade 12 (released 1998)
U   Understanding University Success: A Report from Standards for Success
UK   United Kingdom: Desirable Outcomes for Children’s Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document