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List of Benchmarks for Science 
 Standard 12.Understands the nature of scientific inquiry
  
TopicScientific data collection/analysis/interpretation
   Level IV (Grade 9-12)
  Benchmark 3.Evaluates the results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical and mathematical models, and explanations proposed by other scientists (e.g., reviewing current scientific understanding, using evidence to validate conclusions, examining the logic to determine which explanations and models are the best, examining the involvement of control groups, examining the adequacy of the sample)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  results in context of current scientific understanding
B.  valid conclusion
C.  valid logic
D.  adequate controls
E.  adequate sample size
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Evaluates the results of scientific investigations by reviewing current scientific understanding   
  2. Evaluates the results of scientific investigations by using evidence to validate conclusions  A   
  3. Evaluates the results of scientific investigations by examining the logic to determine which explanations and models are the best   
  4. Evaluates the results of scientific investigations by examining the involvement of control groups   
  5. Evaluates the results of scientific investigations by examining the adequacy of the sample   
  6. Knows that evaluating a proposed scientific explanation includes reviewing current scientific understanding   
  7. Knows that evaluating a proposed scientific explanation includes using evidence to validate conclusions   
  8. Knows that evaluating a proposed scientific explanation includes examining the logic to determine which explanations and models are the best   
  9. Knows that evaluating a proposed scientific explanation includes examining the involvement of control groups   
  10. Knows that evaluating a proposed scientific explanation includes examining the adequacy of the sample   


 A  = Assessment items available

Citation Log: BP(CAE,278-279;​NEI,51,52;​NSE,118;​SE,175)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
2   Project 2061: Benchmarks for Science Literacy
CA   CDE: Science Framework for California Public Schools
CB   College Board Standards for College Success
DoD   Department of Defense curriculum for Prekindergarten science
FR   France: Pre-Elementary School Program
H   Headstart Child Outcomes Framework
IB1   International Baccalaureate: Primary Years Programme curriculum documents
IB2   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Program Sciences Guide
IBB   International Baccalaureate: Biology
IBC   International Baccalaureate: Chemistry
IBE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems and Societies Guide
IBP   International Baccalaureate: Physics
IL   Illinois Early Learning Standards
K   Standards for Success
L   Louisana Pre-Kindergarten Content Standards
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N1   New Standards: Elementary School
N12   NAEP: Released items for grade 12
N2   New Standards: Middle School
N3   New Standards: High School
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8
NE   National Environmental Education Standards
NS   Science Assessment & Item Specifications for 2009 NAEP, Prepub. Ed.
NZ   New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
OL   Ocean Literacy: The essential principles of ocean sciences
P   Pearsall: NSTA: The Content Core
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   NRC: National Science Education Standards
T   TIMSS: Assesment framework for Science
T1   TIMSS: Released items for Population 1 (grade 4)
T2   TIMSS: Released items for Population 2 (grade 8)
T3   TIMSS: Released items for the final year of secondary school (grade 12)
TX1   Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines for Science
TX2   Texas College and Career Readiness Standards
UK   United Kingdom: Desirable Outcomes for Children’s Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Number:
Page number of the cited document