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List of Benchmarks for Geography 
 Standard 13.Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  
Topics1. Cooperation and conflict; 2. Location of natural and human features and places; 3. Convergence and divergence of cultures
   Level IV (Grade 9-12)
  Benchmark 5.Understands why some countries are land-locked (e.g., wars between rival countries, isolation due to the size of landmasses and due to racial and cultural divisions)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  land-locked country
B.  war
C.  isolation
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Understands that some countries are land-locked because of wars between rival countries   
  2. Understands that some countries are land-locked because of isolation due to the size of landmasses   
  3. Understands that some countries are land-locked because of racial and cultural divisions   


Citation Log: BD(GE,211;​NI,85-86)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
DD   Department of Defense: Prekindergarten Social Studies Standards
E   JCGE: Guidelines for Geographic Education
G   GESP: National Geography Standards
HS   Head Start: Child Outcomes Framework
I   IDOE: The Foundations for Young Children to the Indiana Academic Standards
IE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems
IG   International Baccalaureate: Geography
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N   NAEP: Item Specifications in Geography
NZ   New Zealand Ministry of Education: Early Childhood Curriculum
O   OSDE: Oklahoma Developmental Learning Skills for Four-Year-Olds
T   GENIP: K-6 Geography: Themes, Key Ideas
TX   TEA: Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Number:
Page number of the cited document