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List of Benchmarks for Geography 
 Standard 13.Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  
Topics1. Convergence and divergence of cultures; 2. Cultural diffusion, adaptation, and interaction
   Level III (Grade 6-8)
  Benchmark 5.Understands the factors that affect the cohesiveness and integration of countries (e.g., language and religion in Belgium, the religious differences between Hindus and Muslims in India, the ethnic differences in some African countries that have been independent for only a few decades, the elongated shapes of Italy and Chile)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  integration of countries
B.  language and religion in Belgium
C.  Hindus and Muslims in India
D.  ethnic issues in Africa
E.  shape of Italy
F.  shape of Chile
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Understands that language affects the cohesiveness and integration of Belgium   
  2. Understands that religion affects the cohesiveness and integration of Belgium   
  3. Understands that religious differences between Hindus and Muslims affect the cohesiveness and integration of India   
  4. Understands that ethnic differences affect the cohesiveness and integration of some African countries   
  5. Understands that the long shape of Italy affects the cohesiveness and integration of the country   
  6. Understands that the long shape of Chile affects the cohesiveness and integration of the country   


Citation Log: BD(GE,170;​NE,67)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
DD   Department of Defense: Prekindergarten Social Studies Standards
E   JCGE: Guidelines for Geographic Education
G   GESP: National Geography Standards
HS   Head Start: Child Outcomes Framework
I   IDOE: The Foundations for Young Children to the Indiana Academic Standards
IE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems
IG   International Baccalaureate: Geography
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N   NAEP: Item Specifications in Geography
NZ   New Zealand Ministry of Education: Early Childhood Curriculum
O   OSDE: Oklahoma Developmental Learning Skills for Four-Year-Olds
T   GENIP: K-6 Geography: Themes, Key Ideas
TX   TEA: Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Number:
Page number of the cited document