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List of Benchmarks for Geography 
 Standard 13.Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  
TopicSpatial organization, dynamics, and interaction
   Level III (Grade 6-8)
  Benchmark 4.Understands the reasons for multiple and overlapping spatial divisions in society (e.g., postal zones, school districts, telephone area codes, voting wards)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  spatial division
B.  postal zone
C.  school district
D.  telephone area code
E.  voting ward
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Understands the reasons for multiple spatial divisions in society   
  2. Understands the reasons for overlapping spatial divisions in society   
  3. Understands that postal zones contribute to multiple spatial divisions in society   
  4. Understands that postal zones contribute to overlapping spatial divisions in society   
  5. Understands that school districts contribute to multiple spatial divisions in society   
  6. Understands that school districts contribute to overlapping spatial divisions in society   
  7. Understands that telephone area codes contribute to multiple spatial divisions in society   
  8. Understands that telephone area codes contribute to overlapping spatial divisions in society   
  9. Understands that voting wards contribute to multiple spatial divisions in society   
  10. Understands that voting wards contribute to overlapping spatial divisions in society   


Citation Log: BD(GE,169)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
DD   Department of Defense: Prekindergarten Social Studies Standards
E   JCGE: Guidelines for Geographic Education
G   GESP: National Geography Standards
HS   Head Start: Child Outcomes Framework
I   IDOE: The Foundations for Young Children to the Indiana Academic Standards
IE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems
IG   International Baccalaureate: Geography
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N   NAEP: Item Specifications in Geography
NZ   New Zealand Ministry of Education: Early Childhood Curriculum
O   OSDE: Oklahoma Developmental Learning Skills for Four-Year-Olds
T   GENIP: K-6 Geography: Themes, Key Ideas
TX   TEA: Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Number:
Page number of the cited document