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List of Benchmarks for Geography 
 Standard 13.Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  
Topics1. Cooperation and conflict; 2. Group and national identity
   Level III (Grade 6-8)
  Benchmark 1.Understands factors that contribute to cooperation (e.g., similarities in religion, language, political beliefs) or conflict (e.g., economic competition for scarce resources, boundary disputes, cultural differences, control of strategic locations) within and between regions and countries
   Vocabulary terms
A.  regional cooperation
B.  regional conflict
C.  international cooperation
D.  international conflict
E.  cultural cooperation
F.  cultural conflict
G.  economic competition
H.  competition for resources
I.  boundary dispute
J.  control of strategic location
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Understands factors that contribute to cooperation within and between regions    
  2. Understands factors that contribute to cooperation within and between countries  A   
  3. Understands factors that contribute to conflict within and between regions   A   
  4. Understands factors that contribute to conflict within and between countries  A   
  5. Knows that similarities in religion contribute to cooperation within and between countries   
  6. Knows that similarities in religion contribute to cooperation within and between regions   
  7. Knows that similarities in language contribute to cooperation within and between countries   
  8. Knows that similarities in language contribute to cooperation within and between regions   
  9. Knows that similarities in political beliefs contribute to cooperation within and between countries   
  10. Knows that similarities in political beliefs contribute to cooperation within and between regions   
  11. Knows that economic competition for scarce resources contributes to conflict within and between countries  A   
  12. Knows that economic competition for scarce resources contributes to conflict within and between regions   
  13. Knows that boundary disputes contribute to conflict within and between countries   
  14. Knows that boundary disputes contribute to conflict within and between regions   
  15. Knows that cultural differences contribute to conflict within and between countries   
  16. Knows that cultural differences contribute to conflict within and between regions   
  17. Knows that control of strategic locations contributes to conflict within and between countries   
  18. Knows that control of strategic locations contributes to conflict within and between regions   


 A  = Assessment items available

Citation Log: BD(GE,169;​NE,67)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
DD   Department of Defense: Prekindergarten Social Studies Standards
E   JCGE: Guidelines for Geographic Education
G   GESP: National Geography Standards
HS   Head Start: Child Outcomes Framework
I   IDOE: The Foundations for Young Children to the Indiana Academic Standards
IE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems
IG   International Baccalaureate: Geography
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N   NAEP: Item Specifications in Geography
NZ   New Zealand Ministry of Education: Early Childhood Curriculum
O   OSDE: Oklahoma Developmental Learning Skills for Four-Year-Olds
T   GENIP: K-6 Geography: Themes, Key Ideas
TX   TEA: Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Number:
Page number of the cited document