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List of Benchmarks for Geography 
 Standard 8.Understands the characteristics of ecosystems on Earth's surface
Topics1. Ecosystems and biomes ; 2. Biodiversity; 3. Environmental issues; 4. Impact of society on the environment
   Level IV (Grade 9-12)
  Benchmark 4.Knows the effects of both physical and human changes in ecosystems (e.g., the disruption of energy flows and chemical cycles and the reduction of species diversity, how acid rain resulting from air pollution affects water bodies and forests and how depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer through the use of chemicals may affect the health of humans)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  energy flow disruption
B.  chemical cycle disruption
C.  reduction of species diversity
D.  depletion of ozone layer
E.  effects of changes in ecosystems
F.  biodiversity
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Knows the effects of physical changes in ecosystems   
  2. Knows the effects of human changes in ecosystems   
  3. Knows that the disruption of energy flows in an ecosystem reduces species diversity   
  4. Knows that the disruption of chemical cycles in an ecosystem reduces species diversity   
  5. Knows how acid rain, resulting from air pollution, affects bodies of water    
  6. Knows how acid rain, resulting from air pollution, affects the forests   
  7. Knows how the depletion of the atmosphere’s ozone layer, through the use of chemicals, may affect the health of humans   
McREL Activity(s)
   One Forest, Many Opinions

Citation Log: BD(GE,200;​IEE,23,24,25,26,27;​NI,78-79)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
DD   Department of Defense: Prekindergarten Social Studies Standards
E   JCGE: Guidelines for Geographic Education
G   GESP: National Geography Standards
HS   Head Start: Child Outcomes Framework
I   IDOE: The Foundations for Young Children to the Indiana Academic Standards
IE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems
IG   International Baccalaureate: Geography
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N   NAEP: Item Specifications in Geography
NZ   New Zealand Ministry of Education: Early Childhood Curriculum
O   OSDE: Oklahoma Developmental Learning Skills for Four-Year-Olds
T   GENIP: K-6 Geography: Themes, Key Ideas
TX   TEA: Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document