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List of Benchmarks for Geography 
 Standard 8.Understands the characteristics of ecosystems on Earth's surface
Topics1. Ecosystems and biomes ; 2. Impact of society on the environment; 3. Places and regions over time
   Level III (Grade 6-8)
  Benchmark 4.Knows changes that have occurred over time in ecosystems in the local region (e.g., natural wetlands on a flood plain being replaced by farms, farmlands on a flood plain being replaced by housing developments)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  changes in ecosystems
C.  flood plain
D.  urban growth
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Knows instances of natural wetlands on a floodplain being replaced by farms   
  2. Knows instances of farmlands on a floodplain being replaced by housing developments   

Citation Log: BD(GE,159;​NI,54-55)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
DD   Department of Defense: Prekindergarten Social Studies Standards
E   JCGE: Guidelines for Geographic Education
G   GESP: National Geography Standards
HS   Head Start: Child Outcomes Framework
I   IDOE: The Foundations for Young Children to the Indiana Academic Standards
IE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems
IG   International Baccalaureate: Geography
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N   NAEP: Item Specifications in Geography
NZ   New Zealand Ministry of Education: Early Childhood Curriculum
O   OSDE: Oklahoma Developmental Learning Skills for Four-Year-Olds
T   GENIP: K-6 Geography: Themes, Key Ideas
TX   TEA: Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document