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List of Benchmarks for Geography 
 Standard 4.Understands the physical and human characteristics of place
Topics1. Impact of society on the environment; 2. Places and regions over time
   Level III (Grade 6-8)
  Benchmark 4.Knows the causes and effects of changes in a place over time (e.g., physical changes such as forest cover, water distribution, temperature fluctuations; human changes such as urban growth, the clearing of forests, development of transportation systems)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  change in place over time
B.  forest cover
C.  water distribution
D.  temperature fluctuation
E.  urban growth
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Knows physical changes that can occur in a place over time   
  2. Knows human changes that can occur in a place over time   
  3. Knows that forest cover can change over time   
  4. Knows that water distribution can change over time   
  5. Knows that temperatures can fluctuate over time   
  6. Knows that urban growth changes a place over time   
  7. Knows that forest clearing changes a place over time   
  8. Knows that the development of transportation systems changes a place over time   

Citation Log: BD(GE,150-151;​NI,56,57)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
DD   Department of Defense: Prekindergarten Social Studies Standards
E   JCGE: Guidelines for Geographic Education
G   GESP: National Geography Standards
HS   Head Start: Child Outcomes Framework
I   IDOE: The Foundations for Young Children to the Indiana Academic Standards
IE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems
IG   International Baccalaureate: Geography
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N   NAEP: Item Specifications in Geography
NZ   New Zealand Ministry of Education: Early Childhood Curriculum
O   OSDE: Oklahoma Developmental Learning Skills for Four-Year-Olds
T   GENIP: K-6 Geography: Themes, Key Ideas
TX   TEA: Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document