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List of Benchmarks for Science 
 Standard 2.Understands Earth's composition and structure
  
Topics1. Earth’s history; 2. Rock cycle; 3. Natural selection and biological evolution
   Level III (Grade 6-8)
  Benchmark 7.Knows how successive layers of sedimentary rock and the fossils contained within them can be used to confirm the age, history, and changing life forms of the Earth, and how this evidence is affected by the folding, breaking, and uplifting of layers
   Vocabulary terms
A.  evidence from sedimentary rock
B.  fossil in sedimentary rock
C.  Earth’s age
D.  Earth’s history
E.  changing life forms
F.  rock layer movement
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Knows how successive layers of sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the age of the Earth   
  2. Knows how successive layers of sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the history of the Earth   
  3. Knows how successive layers of sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the changing life forms on the Earth   
  4. Knows how the folding of rock layers affect the evidence of the Earth’s history   
  5. Knows how the breaking of rock layers affect the evidence of the Earth’s history   
  6. Knows how the fossils in sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the age of the Earth   
  7. Knows how the fossils in sedimentary rocks are used to confirm the history of the Earth  A   
  8. Knows how the fossils in sedimentary rocks are used to confirm changing life forms on the Earth   
  9. Knows how the uplifting of rock layers affects the evidence of the Earth’s history  A   


 A  = Assessment items available

Citation Log: BD(2E,73,246;​CAI,112-113;​N2I,93;​NSE,88;​PE,80;​TI,67)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
2   Project 2061: Benchmarks for Science Literacy
CA   CDE: Science Framework for California Public Schools
CB   College Board Standards for College Success
DoD   Department of Defense curriculum for Prekindergarten science
FR   France: Pre-Elementary School Program
H   Headstart Child Outcomes Framework
IB1   International Baccalaureate: Primary Years Programme curriculum documents
IB2   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Program Sciences Guide
IBB   International Baccalaureate: Biology
IBC   International Baccalaureate: Chemistry
IBE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems and Societies Guide
IBP   International Baccalaureate: Physics
IL   Illinois Early Learning Standards
K   Standards for Success
L   Louisana Pre-Kindergarten Content Standards
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N1   New Standards: Elementary School
N12   NAEP: Released items for grade 12
N2   New Standards: Middle School
N3   New Standards: High School
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8
NE   National Environmental Education Standards
NS   Science Assessment & Item Specifications for 2009 NAEP, Prepub. Ed.
NZ   New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
OL   Ocean Literacy: The essential principles of ocean sciences
P   Pearsall: NSTA: The Content Core
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   NRC: National Science Education Standards
T   TIMSS: Assesment framework for Science
T1   TIMSS: Released items for Population 1 (grade 4)
T2   TIMSS: Released items for Population 2 (grade 8)
T3   TIMSS: Released items for the final year of secondary school (grade 12)
TX1   Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines for Science
TX2   Texas College and Career Readiness Standards
UK   United Kingdom: Desirable Outcomes for Children’s Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Number:
Page number of the cited document