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List of Benchmarks for Science 
 Standard 1.Understands atmospheric processes and the water cycle
TopicSeasons, weather, and climate
   Level III (Grade 6-8)
  Benchmark 4.Knows factors that can impact the Earth’s climate (e.g., changes in the composition of the atmosphere; changes in ocean temperature; geological shifts such as meteor impacts, the advance or retreat of glaciers, or a series of volcanic eruptions)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  climate change
B.  atmospheric composition
C.  change in ocean temperature
D.  geological shift
E.  meteor impact
F.  glacial movement
G.  effect of volcanoes on climate
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Knows that volcanic eruptions can have an impact on the Earth’s climate   
  2. Knows that changes in atmospheric composition can have an impact on the Earth’s climate   P  
  3. Knows that changes in ocean temperatures can have an impact on the Earth’s climate  A   P  
  4. Knows that geological shifts can have an impact on the Earth’s climate   
  5. Knows that meteors can have an impact on the Earth’s climate   
  6. Knows that the advance of glaciers can have an impact on the Earth’s climate   
  7. Knows that the retreat of glaciers can have an impact on the Earth’s climate   

 A  = Assessment items available

 P  = Performance expectation(s) available based on source documents

Citation Log: BD(2E,69;​CAI,112;​IB2I,27;​IBEE,42,45;​N2I,93;​NSE,76;​SE,160;​TI,66;​*)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
2   Project 2061: Benchmarks for Science Literacy
CA   CDE: Science Framework for California Public Schools
CB   College Board Standards for College Success
DoD   Department of Defense curriculum for Prekindergarten science
FR   France: Pre-Elementary School Program
H   Headstart Child Outcomes Framework
IB1   International Baccalaureate: Primary Years Programme curriculum documents
IB2   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Program Sciences Guide
IBB   International Baccalaureate: Biology
IBC   International Baccalaureate: Chemistry
IBE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems and Societies Guide
IBP   International Baccalaureate: Physics
IL   Illinois Early Learning Standards
K   Standards for Success
L   Louisana Pre-Kindergarten Content Standards
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N1   New Standards: Elementary School
N12   NAEP: Released items for grade 12
N2   New Standards: Middle School
N3   New Standards: High School
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8
NE   National Environmental Education Standards
NS   Science Assessment & Item Specifications for 2009 NAEP, Prepub. Ed.
NZ   New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
OL   Ocean Literacy: The essential principles of ocean sciences
P   Pearsall: NSTA: The Content Core
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   NRC: National Science Education Standards
T   TIMSS: Assesment framework for Science
T1   TIMSS: Released items for Population 1 (grade 4)
T2   TIMSS: Released items for Population 2 (grade 8)
T3   TIMSS: Released items for the final year of secondary school (grade 12)
TX1   Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines for Science
TX2   Texas College and Career Readiness Standards
UK   United Kingdom: Desirable Outcomes for Children’s Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document