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List of Benchmarks for Science 
 Standard 2.Understands Earth's composition and structure
TopicPlate tectonics
   Level IV (Grade 9-12)
  Benchmark 1.Understands the concept of plate tectonics (e.g., the outward transfer of the Earth’s internal heat and the action of gravitational forces on regions of different density drive convection circulation in the mantle; these convection currents propel the Earth’s crustal plates, which move very slowly, pressing against one another in some places and pulling apart in other places)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  plate tectonics
B.  transfer of Earth’s internal heat
C.  gravitational force and plate tectonics
D.  convection current
E.  cause of crustal plate movement
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Understands that the Earth’s crustal plates pull apart in some places and press against one another in other places  A   
  2. Understands that the outward transfer of the Earth’s internal heat drives convection circulation in the mantle   
  3. Understands that gravitational forces on regions of different density drive convection circulation    
  4. Understands that convection currents propel the Earth’s crustal plates   
  5. Understands that the Earth’s crustal plates move slowly   

 A  = Assessment items available

Citation Log: BD(2E,74,248;​CAI,260-261;​N3I,83;​NSE,81;​OLI,1b;​PE,93-94;​SE,189;​*)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
2   Project 2061: Benchmarks for Science Literacy
CA   CDE: Science Framework for California Public Schools
CB   College Board Standards for College Success
DoD   Department of Defense curriculum for Prekindergarten science
FR   France: Pre-Elementary School Program
H   Headstart Child Outcomes Framework
IB1   International Baccalaureate: Primary Years Programme curriculum documents
IB2   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Program Sciences Guide
IBB   International Baccalaureate: Biology
IBC   International Baccalaureate: Chemistry
IBE   International Baccalaureate: Environmental Systems and Societies Guide
IBP   International Baccalaureate: Physics
IL   Illinois Early Learning Standards
K   Standards for Success
L   Louisana Pre-Kindergarten Content Standards
MH   McGraw-Hill: Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning
N1   New Standards: Elementary School
N12   NAEP: Released items for grade 12
N2   New Standards: Middle School
N3   New Standards: High School
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8
NE   National Environmental Education Standards
NS   Science Assessment & Item Specifications for 2009 NAEP, Prepub. Ed.
NZ   New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
OL   Ocean Literacy: The essential principles of ocean sciences
P   Pearsall: NSTA: The Content Core
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   NRC: National Science Education Standards
T   TIMSS: Assesment framework for Science
T1   TIMSS: Released items for Population 1 (grade 4)
T2   TIMSS: Released items for Population 2 (grade 8)
T3   TIMSS: Released items for the final year of secondary school (grade 12)
TX1   Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines for Science
TX2   Texas College and Career Readiness Standards
UK   United Kingdom: Desirable Outcomes for Children’s Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document