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List of Benchmarks for Language Arts 
 Standard 1.Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
TopicPersuasive writing
   Level IV (Grade 9-12)
  Benchmark 9.Writes compositions employing persuasion (e.g., uses rhetorical techniques, such as appeal to logic and emotion; relates personal anecdotes; cites commonly accepted beliefs or expert opinion; anticipates readers’ knowledge level, concerns, values, and potential biases) and argument (e.g., articulates a thesis statement or claim; establishes clear relationships among claim(s), opposing and counterclaims; reasons, and evidence; identifies strengths and limitations of own arguments and counterarguments; provides a concluding statement that follows from general argument)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  persuasive writing
B.  rhetorical device
C.  appeal to logic
D.  appeal to emotion
E.  anecdotal support
F.  expert opinion
G.  readers’ knowledge level
H.  readers’ concerns
I.  readers’ biases
J.  developing arguments
K.  claim
L.  opposing claim
M.  counterclaim
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Writes compositions employing persuasion   
  2. Uses rhetorical techniques to persuade   P  
  3. Uses appeals to logic to persuade   P   W.9-10.1; W.11-12.1 
  4. Uses appeals to emotion to persuade   P  
  5. Uses personal anecdotes to persuade    P  
  6. Cites commonly accepted beliefs to persuade   P  
  7. Cites expert opinions to persuade   P  
  8. Anticipates readers’ knowledge level     W.9-10.1.b; W.11-12.1.b 
  9. Anticipates reader concerns   P   W.7-8.1.a; W.9-10.1.b; W.11-12.1.b 
  10. Anticipates readers’ values    W.11-12.1.b 
  11. Anticipates readers’ potential biases   P   W.11-12.1.b 
  12. Writes compositions employing argument   P   W.9-10.1; W.11-12.1 
  13. Articulates a thesis statement or a claim     W.9-10.1.a; W.11-12.1.a 
  14. Establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), opposing and counterclaims, reasons, and evidence   A   P   W.9-10.1.a; W.11-12.1.a 
  15. Identifies strengths of own arguments     W.9-10.1.b; W.11-12.1.b 
  16. Identifies strengths of counterarguments    W.9-10.1.b; W.11-12.1.b 
  17. Identifies limitations of own arguments    W.9-10.1.b; W.11-12.1.b 
  18. Identifies limitations of counterarguments    W.9-10.1.b; W.11-12.1.b 
  19. Provides a concluding statement that follows from the general argument    W.9-10.1.e; W.11-12.1.e 
McREL Activity(s)
   Emotion or Reason?
   Interpreting Christopher Columbus
   One Forest, Many Opinions
   Reflections About Diversity
   We the People. . .

 A  = Assessment items available

 P  = Performance expectation(s) available based on source documents

 CC  = Common Core standards available (Common Core ID indicated)

Citation Log: BP(AE,82;​CAE,60,61;​CBE,73;​ES3I,11;​G9E,8;​IAI,29;​INE,87,97;​MAE,74;​NS3E,22,24,27;​NWE,4-5;​NZ2I,19,21;​T3E,5;​VE,51,*)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
A   Australian Education Council
AASL   American Association of School Librarians
AC   ACT, College Readiness Standards
AD   American Diploma Project
B   British Film Institute
C   Considine & Haley, Visual Images
CA   California: English-Language Arts Content Standards
CB   CBE: Standards for Excellence
CBS   College Board: College Board Standards for College Success: English Language Arts
CC   Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
D   Department of Defense Curriculum
E1   Edison Project: Primary Academy
E2   Edison Project: Elementary Academy
E3   Edison Project: Junior Academy
ES1   NCTE: Exemplar Series, K-5
ES2   NCTE: Exemplar Series, 6-8
ES3   NCTE: Exemplar Series, 9-12
FR   France: Programmes de l’ecole primaire francaise
G1   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 1
G2   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 2
G3   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 3
G4   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 4
G5   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 5
G6   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 6
G7   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 7
G8   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 8
G9   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 9
GAL   Georgia: English Language Arts - American Literature
GK   Georgia: English Language Arts - Kindergarten
HS   Head Start Child Outcome Framework
IA   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Language A
IA1   International Baccalaureate: Language A1 Guide
IN   Indiana: English Language Arts
IP   International Baccalaureate: Primary
L   Literacy for the Information Age
LA   Louisiana Language and Literacy Development
MA   Massachusetts: English Language Arts Curriculum Framework
MA2   Massachusetts: Supplement to English Language Arts Framework, Grades 3,5,7
MH   McGraw-Hill Pre-K Standards
N   National Communication Association
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4 (2003)
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8 (2003)
NR   NAEP: 1992-1998 Achievement Levels- Reading
NS1   New Standards: Elementary School
NS2   New Standards: Middle School
NS3   New Standards: High School
NW   NAEP: 1992-1998 Achievement Levels-Writing
NZ    New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
NZ2   New Zealand Curriculum
O1   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 1
O10   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 10
O11   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 11
O12   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 12
O2   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 2
O3   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 3
O4   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 4
O5   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 5
O6   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 6
O7   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 7
O8   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 8
O9   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 9
P   Partnership for 21st Century Skills
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   Speech Communication Association
SP1   NCTE: Standards in Practice: K-2
SP2   NCTE: Standards in Practice: 3-5
SP3   NCTE: Standards in Practice: 6-8
SP4   NCTE: Standards in Practice: 9-12
SS   NCSS: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies
T   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading
T1   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading: Elementary
T2   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading: Middle School
T3   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading: High School
TM   Teaching the Media
TX   Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines
U   Understanding University Success: A Report from Standards for Success
UNK   United Kingdom: Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage
UT   Utah Early Childhood Standards
V   Board of Education, Commonwealth of Virginia: Standards of Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document