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List of Benchmarks for Language Arts 
 Standard 1.Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
Topics1. Informative writing; 2. Locating sources/gathering information; 3. Paragraph development; 4. Style, diction, and voice; 5. Organizing information and ideas
   Level IV (Grade 9-12)
  Benchmark 7.Writes expository compositions (e.g., synthesizes and organizes information from first- and second-hand sources, including books, magazines, computer data banks, and the community; uses a variety of techniques to develop the main idea [names, describes, or differentiates parts; compares or contrasts; uses cause-and-effect reasoning; examines the history of a subject; cites an anecdote to provide an example; illustrates through a scenario; provides interesting facts about the subject]; distinguishes relative importance of facts, data, and ideas; uses domain-specific vocabulary, such as appropriate technical terms and notations; provides concluding statement that articulates implications or significance of the topic)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  expository composition
B.  synthesizing information
C.  organizing information
D.  first-hand source
E.  second-hand source
F.  developing main idea
G.  cause-and-effect reasoning
H.  anecdotal support
I.  relative importance
J.  domain-specific vocabulary
K.  technical term
L.  technical notation
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Synthesizes information from first-hand sources   P   W.9-10.2.a,b; W.11-12.2.a,b 
  2. Synthesizes information from second-hand sources   P   W.9-10.2.a,b; W.11-12.2.a,b 
  3. Organizes information from first-hand sources   P   W.9-10.2.a, W.11-12.a 
  4. Organizes information from second-hand sources   P   W.9-10.2.a; W.11-12.2.a 
  5. Synthesizes information from books   P  
  6. Synthesizes information from magazines   P  
  7. Synthesizes information from computer data bank   
  8. Synthesizes information from community   
  9. Organizes information from books   
  10. Organizes information from magazines   
  11. Organizes information from computer data banks   
  12. Organizes information from community   
  13. Uses techniques to develop the main idea  A   P   W.6.2.b; W.7.2.b; W.8.2.b; W.9-10.2.b; W.11-12.2.b 
  14. Names parts to develop main idea   P  
  15. Describes parts to develop main idea   P  
  16. Differentiates parts to develop main idea   
  17. Compares to develop main idea   P  
  18. Contrasts to develop main idea   P  
  19. Uses cause-and-effect reasoning to develop main idea   
  20. Examines the history of a subject to develop the main idea   
  21. Cites anecdotes to provide an example   P   W.9-10.2.b; W.11-12.2.b 
  22. Illustrates through scenario  A   P  
  23. Provides interesting facts about subject    W.6.2.b; W.7.2.b; W.8.2.b; W.9-10.2.b; W.11-12.2.b 
  24. Distinguishes relative importance of facts   P   W.9-10.2.a,b; W.11-12.2.b 
  25. Distinguishes relative importance of data   P   W.9-10.2.a 
  26. Distinguishes relative importance of ideas  A   P   W.9-10.2.a 
  27. Uses domain-specific vocabulary     W.6.2.d; W.7.2.d; W.8.2.d; W.9-10.2.d; W.11-12.2.d 
  28. Uses appropriate technical terms   P  
  29. Uses appropriate notations   P  
  30. Provides a concluding statement that articulates implications or significance of a topic    W.9-10.2.f; W.11-12.2.f 
McREL Activity(s)
   American Music Genres
   Election 2000
   Salon Simulation

 A  = Assessment items available

 P  = Performance expectation(s) available based on source documents

 CC  = Common Core standards available (Common Core ID indicated)

Citation Log: BP(CAE,60;​CBE,73;​G9E,7,9;​IAE,29;​INI,87;​INE,96,118;​NS3E,23;​NWE,4-5;​MAE,74;​NZ2I,19,21;​T3E,5;​VE,46,49,54,*)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
A   Australian Education Council
AASL   American Association of School Librarians
AC   ACT, College Readiness Standards
AD   American Diploma Project
B   British Film Institute
C   Considine & Haley, Visual Images
CA   California: English-Language Arts Content Standards
CB   CBE: Standards for Excellence
CBS   College Board: College Board Standards for College Success: English Language Arts
CC   Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
D   Department of Defense Curriculum
E1   Edison Project: Primary Academy
E2   Edison Project: Elementary Academy
E3   Edison Project: Junior Academy
ES1   NCTE: Exemplar Series, K-5
ES2   NCTE: Exemplar Series, 6-8
ES3   NCTE: Exemplar Series, 9-12
FR   France: Programmes de l’ecole primaire francaise
G1   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 1
G2   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 2
G3   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 3
G4   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 4
G5   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 5
G6   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 6
G7   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 7
G8   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 8
G9   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 9
GAL   Georgia: English Language Arts - American Literature
GK   Georgia: English Language Arts - Kindergarten
HS   Head Start Child Outcome Framework
IA   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Language A
IA1   International Baccalaureate: Language A1 Guide
IN   Indiana: English Language Arts
IP   International Baccalaureate: Primary
L   Literacy for the Information Age
LA   Louisiana Language and Literacy Development
MA   Massachusetts: English Language Arts Curriculum Framework
MA2   Massachusetts: Supplement to English Language Arts Framework, Grades 3,5,7
MH   McGraw-Hill Pre-K Standards
N   National Communication Association
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4 (2003)
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8 (2003)
NR   NAEP: 1992-1998 Achievement Levels- Reading
NS1   New Standards: Elementary School
NS2   New Standards: Middle School
NS3   New Standards: High School
NW   NAEP: 1992-1998 Achievement Levels-Writing
NZ    New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
NZ2   New Zealand Curriculum
O1   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 1
O10   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 10
O11   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 11
O12   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 12
O2   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 2
O3   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 3
O4   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 4
O5   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 5
O6   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 6
O7   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 7
O8   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 8
O9   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 9
P   Partnership for 21st Century Skills
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   Speech Communication Association
SP1   NCTE: Standards in Practice: K-2
SP2   NCTE: Standards in Practice: 3-5
SP3   NCTE: Standards in Practice: 6-8
SP4   NCTE: Standards in Practice: 9-12
SS   NCSS: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies
T   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading
T1   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading: Elementary
T2   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading: Middle School
T3   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading: High School
TM   Teaching the Media
TX   Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines
U   Understanding University Success: A Report from Standards for Success
UNK   United Kingdom: Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage
UT   Utah Early Childhood Standards
V   Board of Education, Commonwealth of Virginia: Standards of Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document